Top Ten Effective Tips for Reducing Anxiety

November 21st, 2020 by

Anxiety is defined as the feeling of being threatened or in danger. It’s a feeling of unease, such as worry or fear, that ranges from mild to severe. Everyone experiences anxiety at some point in their life.

The DSM-5 has identified a wide range of anxiety disorders such as specified anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and a variety of phobias. However, only a small percentage of people suffer from these disorders. Statistics show that roughly 70 percent of the population experience anxiety symptoms while performing daily tasks.

If an individual, for example, is preparing for an important presentation at work or a job interview, a certain amount of anxiety is expected and necessary for the task at hand. But when it exceeds the standard limit, it can interfere with a person’s life.

Researchers have identified three main coping strategies to help people manage anxiety. These are physical strategies, thought modification strategies, and lifestyle modification strategies.

This article will provide you with ten effective ways to help you reduce anxiety.

1. The 3-3 rule

Anxiety 3-3 rule

Th 3-3 rule is a useful technique used for those experiencing sudden waves of anxiety. It can help to distract your mind from the perceived threatening situation and accelerating thoughts that accompany the condition. 

The key is to follow the three steps below:

By taking deep breaths and following these steps, you are likely to feel more grounded a lot quicker.

2. Cognitive modification

whiteriver manor - personality disorders

Fear of uncertainty is the key element around which anxiety revolves.

Changing your thought patterns helps to reduce anxiety and allows you to overcome your fears. All this can be a complicated process for some people, but not impossible.

The following steps can help you change your thoughts about a specific situation:

3. Regular exercise

replacing sport for bad habits

Exercise is synonymous with good mental health. Physical activity can help to relieve anxiety in several ways; exercise can help to: 

4. Avoid caffeine

Caffeine consumption often aggravates the symptoms of anxiety. Minimizing your daily intake can be beneficial in the fight against stress.

5. Avoid alcohol


Often, people use alcohol to cope with social anxiety. However, several researchers conclude that alcoholics are at a higher risk of developing stress. There are several ways in which low alcohol consumption can help to improve brain chemistry and reduce anxiety. 

These include:

6. Long Walks

walking a dog in white river manor

Going for a long walk helps to reduce anxiety. Whenever you find yourself in the throes of an anxiety attack, try and go for a walk, preferably in nature. 

Getting out of the house and going for a brisk walk can be beneficial to our mental health in the following two ways:

7. Adopting hobbies

painter anxiety relief

Hobbies can help significantly when it comes to organizing our thoughts. Gardening, reading books, listening to relaxing music, painting, sketching, and other pursuits that involve creativity are most beneficial in reducing anxiety.

8. Write it out 

keeping a journay stress relief

Those who write regularly are often a lot more calmer when faced with adversity or stressful situations. 

Writing your thoughts down (and writing in general) can help those battling with anxiety in the following two ways:

9. Meditation

mindfulness and stress

Meditation is often used for stress relief; but it can also reduce anxiety. Mindful meditation, when practised regularly, can help people to manage their anxiety better. 

The benefits of daily meditation can help people to:

10. Healthy diet

nutrition at white river

The old adage we are what we eat couldn’t be any more true. Cultivating a healthy balanced diet can help us to avoid a wide range of illnesses as well as mental health complications. 

The following foods that are incredibly helpful in combating anxiety include:

All the tips above are beneficial and worth putting into practice. 

People need to remember that they are not alone in the fight against anxiety. Reaching out to friends, family members, or, even better, a professional counsellor are all constructive ways to lower stress and feelings of isolation.

Whenever life becomes overwhelming, you can always try out therapy. A therapist is a specialized individual who can help you to manage your feelings of anxiety in a space that is both safe and encouraging.

Therapists can help to diagnose and treat the problem, manage your symptoms, and suggest any helpful therapies and medication designed to help with your symptoms.

We’re here to help.

Contact us today if you’d like a confidential and free conversation with one of our highly-trained professionals.

Purpose in Pain: The Power of Storytelling in Recovery

November 19th, 2020 by

An article from Psychology Today states that telling your story “may be the most powerful medicine on earth.”

How is this so, especially for us shy types who cringe at the idea of sharing anything to a group of others?

Research and anecdotal experience show the power of storytelling in recovery can teach, entertain, comfort, and heal both the storyteller and the audience.

Why Tell Your Story?

A notable study from researchers Linda Lederman and Lisa Menegatos in 2011 found that storytelling was an important part of the addiction recovery process.

Lederman and Menegatos surveyed 178 members of Alcoholic Anonymous and asked them if sharing their stories with other alcoholics helped them stay sober. Their results reveal that storytelling not only helps the recipients, but it impacts the storyteller in five ways:

1. Serves as a Reminder of a Painful Past

At first glance, this may seem like a negative: Why would you want to remind yourself of your painful past? The keyword here is a “reminder.” While there is no need to dwell on the painful parts of your past addiction, it is important to be reminded of them from time to time to reinforce your recovery.

Many in recovery remember their past life to fortify that they don’t want to return there. Your goal is to get to the point where you can share the parts of your past addictions with others while not letting these memories define you or get you down.

Remembering how you got to where you are today is a necessary step in recovery, and sharing these parts of your story with others strengthens your own sobriety.

2. Reinforces One’s Recovery

When you share your story, you affirm its importance. No longer is your recovery something you are hoping for. It’s real and alive, and you are living it every day. Finding the strength to tell your story reinforces the impact of your recovery for you and others.

In addition, storytelling also yields encouragement and affirmation from others. When someone lets you know how your story impacted their sobriety, you will see that sharing helps your own recovery too. In the same way, sharing provides you with accountability from others.

3. Loses the Sense of Terminal Uniqueness

As defined by many addiction recovery centres, terminal uniqueness, is the “belief that the situation the individual is facing is unlike anything faced by other people.” This belief, also called personal exceptionalism, is common in recovery circles but serves as dangerous thinking that establishes a “me versus them” mentality and can lead to relapse.

Sharing your story with others allows this harmful thinking pattern to vanish because it shows that while your story is unique, others can certainly relate to it.

There’s a common saying in AA groups, “Listen to the similarities and not the differences,” which is a great tip to help the sense of terminal uniqueness.

4. Develops One’s Relationship with One’s Self

The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration published an article about how storytelling supports one’s recovery while reinforcing the relationship with one’s self. The authors discuss how communication is a crucial step towards building self-confidence and improving problem-solving ability.

By sharing from your heart, you are developing your sense of self; something often lost during active addiction. Sharing builds self-esteem and self-love, both attributes that are the fruits of sobriety. You will realise you have a voice and purpose, two things you may not have realised before recovery.

5. Helps Others

Think about how others’ stories may have helped you in your own recovery. Surely, you have heard inspiration and support from people that you may have never received if it weren’t for you listening. In the same way, others will hear the hope they need from your story. And recovery is all about just that, hope.

In addition to helping others, telling your story can open up opportunities for connections with others in recovery. If you are authentic, you are likely to be met with authenticity, which is the basis of a strong connection.

Getting Over the Fear: “What Will People Think of Me if I Share?”

road to recovery Whiteriver manor

The fear of sharing can be debilitating, but it doesn’t have to be when you realise this simple truth:

It’s not really about you, anyway.

Yikes. That’s harsh. But think about it: if you have a recovery story to tell, you have seen a miracle in your life, and while your story is unique, the miracle of recovery should be shared with others.

Why would you not want to share this miracle if it would help someone else? Is your story really about you, or is it about the hope you have to share?

Yes, storytelling helps the storyteller, but it also helps those listening. Get over the fear of “what will people think of me if I share?” Honestly, they will be glad you had the strength and courage to get over that fear and share your powerful story of hope.

Stories have the opportunity to teach, comfort, and heal, especially in recovery.

All of this can be summed up in these words: You are not alone. And by sharing your stories of hope, you will let others know they are not alone either.

We’re here to help.

Contact us today if you’d like a confidential and free chat with one of our highly-trained professionals.

How Grief Can Help us Build Resilience

November 17th, 2020 by

Resilience is ‘’the strength and speed of our response to adversity’’. In essence, emotional stability (such as Resilience) is the ability to bounce back quickly after tragedy has occurred.

Grief and Resilience

It’s hard (particularly for grievers) to imagine how the words ‘’resilience’’ and ‘’grief’’ could coexist in the same sentence much less go hand in hand in the grief recovery process.

Some might argue that there is no such thing as recovery from Grief; that Grief is an emotional burden to be forever carried, rather than something that a person can eventually recover from. 

There might be a grain of truth to both paradigms, that perhaps Grief is the heavy rucksack we will all have to carry at some point – as we navigate our way through to recovery (and how recovery looks will be different from person to person).

Before we examine the correlation between Grief and Resilience, let’s first take a look at both meanings in more detail.

What is Grief?

According to grief recovery experts, John James and Russell Friedman

‘’Grief is the normal and natural reaction to a loss of any kind. Therefore the feelings you have are normal and natural for you’’ (Grief recovery handbook).

James and Friedman believe Grief to be:

Perhaps it’s also important to discern what James and Friedman meant by the word recovery as some people (particularly those in early Grief) might find the term traumatising (and rightly so!).

The translation of grief recovery means:

According to John James and Russell Friedman, incomplete recovery from Grief can lead to lifelong dissatisfaction and can harm a person’s capacity for future happiness.

That’s one school of thought. 

There are broader definitions that describe the complexities of Grief. 

In early Grief, or particularly when death is anticipated (such as when someone is terminally ill), family members become plagued with a myriad of unpleasant thoughts, feelings and questions.  

Is this normal?

When a loved one has died – nothing can prepare you for the pain and shock that accompanies the loss. 

Loss rips open our hearts and can expose us to our deepest fears and weaknesses, a process that leaves many exhausted and empty.

Temporarily, it can feel as though your brain and body are no longer operating the way they used to. 

A person in early Grief is likely to feel outside of their own body and can experience feelings of unreality.

According to Cruse, one of the many questions that can plaque those in deep Grief is often: ‘’Is the way I’m feeling normal?’’ 

The short answer to that question is – in Grief, anything goes. 

Other common occurrences in Grief include:

Now that we have some idea of what Grief is let’s take a look at what Resilience means.

What is Resilience?

Grief and Resilience

Ken Ginsburg Paediatrician, MD, developed the 7 Cs model of Resilience, which helps children and teens to be more resilient and happier.  

According to Ginsburg, resiliency includes:

What does Resilience mean to you?

How a person handles, adversity will be different from how their sibling or friend manages the same situation. Often in Grief, comparisons are made by the truckload. 

If a parent dies, for example, one sibling might be unable to control their crying, while the other sibling mightn’t be able to cry at all. 

There are no distinctions. And there are certainly no right and wrongs in Grief. 

The stages of loss of a loved one 

Unfortunately, when it comes to Grief, there is a silent belief that it is perfectly normal for people to cry, to curl up in a ball on the floor, not so ordinary when people can’t (for whatever reason) react in those ways.

If Ginsburg’s 7 Cs model has any truth to it, then our reactions to Grief likely stems from how we build Resilience as children.

For instance, the way a child learns to cope with a stressful situation might be in complete opposition to the way his or her classmate learned to cope. 

How we perceive the world around us could be similar to how we solve the loss of a loved one.

If a child learns from a young age that life is unfair, for example, this will be the self -fulfilling prophecy they carry through to adulthood and, crucially in the losses they incur throughout life.

Therefore, the ability to recover from difficult life situations (such as loss) is unique for everyone.

How Grief can help us build Resilience

Dr William Doverspike, talks in his book: ‘’Grief: The journey from suffering to resilience’’ about the connection between Resilience and Grief. Doverspike explains that:

‘’One never really returns to his or her former self. Instead, one incorporates the experience into what eventually becomes a new self. Resolving requires working through Grief, which takes time. ‘’

He also mentioned that doing the work in Grief eventually leads to resolution, recovery and Resilience.

What does doing the work in Grief mean?

According to Doverspike, there are three ways in which a person can start to resolve their Grief and begin to build Resilience. All this is done by:

Doverspike recommends grievers ask themselves each morning: ‘’What’s the one thing I know I can do today to help me move through my grief?’’

Experts suggest that grievers, instead of thinking about the crisis over and over, they should see themselves beyond the present by visualising how the future will be different. Noting the small ways in which you feel better is also an excellent way to keep track of how you handle difficult situations.

Others have reported a greater sense of self-worth and gratitude for life in general. Many have also taken on projects that give them meaning – others have decided to travel the world. 

Embarking on something new gives new meaning to our lives – helping us to heal and move forward.

A final word on Resilience

Fostering Resilience can allow grievers to identify ways of coping that work well for them by incorporating these mechanisms as a strategic response to the death of a loved one. 

Through this, we learn how to build Resilience through Grief.

Getting help

Do you feel stuck in Grief? Then perhaps it’s time to reach out to a professional who can help you to identify your unique style of grieving, allowing you to move forward. 

Contact the team at White River today and find out how we can help you in this transition. 

How gratitude can make us happier

November 9th, 2020 by

It was Karl Barth who once quoted that: ‘’Joy is the simplest form of gratitude’’, and he wasn’t wrong.

Numerous studies show that having gratitude leads to gratefulness and fullness of life.

Those who practise gratitude daily often have better health, a satisfaction of life and tend to be far happier in general.

What is gratitude, and where can I get some?

Gratitude is essentially an attitude.

It’s a way of looking at life that eventually leads to long-term fulfilment and higher levels of satisfaction. Practising gratitude is similar to how people practise mindfulness.

With the use of positive mantras and meditation, being present in the moment and having an appreciation for what we have rather than focusing on what we don’t have is the key to embracing life at its fullest and playing the cards we have.

Gratitude is about enjoying the things we have rather than concentrating on anything we might be lacking.

Since the human brain tends to focus on threats and any negative aspects that might be going on within our environment, gratitude can help reverse the negative chain of thoughts that lead to anxiety and depression.

Studies show that when we practise gratitude and foster emotions like contentment, joy, satisfaction and happiness, this can help our brains to unlearn any unhelpful patterns, thoughts and behaviours that often create self-destructive ways of coping.

Practising gratitude can show up as:

Does gratitude improve our health?

According to a study that was published by Personality and Individual Differences in 2012, having gratitude can make us healthier.

The literature shows that grateful people experience fewer pains and aches in the body and report higher levels of physical well being over those who don’t practise gratitude.

All this could be because grateful people tend to take better care of their health, attend regular check-ups and exercise more which often is associated with a greater life span and much higher levels of emotional well being.

Practising gratitude regularly can also:

Gratitude is good medicine

Robert A. Emmons, Ph.D., a professor of Psychology at the University of California-Davis, explains that gratitude is good medicine.

Clinical trials shown in Emmons report illustrate that gratitude can help lower blood pressure and boost the immune system.

The article also explains that grateful people tend to smoke less and are far less likely to abuse drugs and alcohol.

Grateful people are also more likely to have better dietary requirements and engage more in exercise.

How to practise gratitude

Studies show that there are five effective ways to practise being more grateful.

They include:

1.  Nourishing your body

Feeding your body with the right nutrients is a huge aspect of feeling grateful.

Nourishing your system with three balanced meals a day whilst taking a minute to appreciate the food you eat is one surefire way to practise gratitude whilst enjoying your food!

2. Asking yourself what activity you did today that you enjoyed

Taking the time to reflect on your day by remembering the awesome stuff that you did whether that be an aerobic workout, being more patient in a long line of traffic, or simply helping out a stressed friend is a reflective way to practise gratitude.

3. Appreciating your health

Taking time-out to be thankful for your health can be a fantastic way to be more grateful.

Our bodies are fine-tuned machines that can help us to run fast when we need to and to hike up the tallest of mountains.

If that’s not a reason to be thankful, I don’t know what is!

4. Being grateful for the people in your life

Our relationships are what make up the components of our life. Our friends, partners, family and colleagues all contribute to our well being.

Being grateful for the people who show up in our lives can help to rejuvenate our relationships.

Why not send someone a ‘thank you’ note or a bunch of flowers to show them you care?

5. Valuing your time

Every single waking day, we are each gifted with another 24 hours.

No day is a guarantee to any of us and, the simple art of waking up should give us enough gratitude for the day, if not the whole year ahead!

Practise valuing the time you have and, before long, you will be a master of gratitude.

Why being grateful makes us happier

The benefits of having gratitude are synonymous with happiness. According to research, the benefits of gratitude comprises of 5 elements:

Gratitude not only makes us happier, but it can also be used as a moral motive in that it encourages prosocial behaviour over societally disruptive behaviour, according to one study on The Science of Gratitude.

The same study showed that 20% of Americans thought of gratitude as being a useful and constructive emotion.

The German population, on the other hand, gave gratitude a rating of 50%.

Having a gratitude mindset can help us in nearly every aspect of our lives, and the benefits of having such a mindset are limitless. 

Therefore, practising gratitude is a crucial component to enjoying good mental and physical health which, of course, makes us happier.

Drugs and style through the decades

October 27th, 2020 by

Since the beginning of humankind, it seems that people have been using drugs to change the way they feel. Perhaps it was to keep away tiredness on hunting expeditions or as part of spiritual or coming of age rituals.

For instance, traces of the use of opium poppies from Stone Age settlements in Switzerland, Germany and Spain have been discovered. Then there’s evidence that people living in Peruvian caves used cacti with the psychedelic substance mescaline sometime between 8600BC and 5600BC.

We also know that the fly agaric mushroom has been at the centre of spiritual ceremonies in Asia for at least 4,000 years. In fact, opium, magic mushrooms and other psychoactive drugs have been used by people for thousands of years.

Much more recently stars from the Hollywood Golden age of the early to mid-20th Century have told how they made some of the world’s classic films on what was described to them as “vitamin pills”. These were actually amphetamine stimulants.

In World War Two the strong stimulant drug methamphetamine drove the ruthless Blitzkrieg (“lightning war”) of the Nazis. War historians cite it as a major reason they managed to invade swathes of Europe so swiftly.

But it is since World War Two that modern drug use has taken on a pattern that has seen a drug connected to a particular fashion and musical genre.

Within this there have been many crossovers in the decades and between the styles, but here are the many fashions, music and drugs for the decades.

The 1950s: Greasers & Teds; rock ‘n roll; beer

1950s and drug abuse

People had a bit more money and time in the decade following the Second World War. This included those in their teens and twenties. The “greasers” started in America listening to a diet of rock ‘n’ roll music such as Little Richard, Chuck Berry, Billy Haley and Elvis Presley.

They dressed in black leather biker jackets, T-shirts, turned-up jeans and motorbike boots with their hair brushed back using products that gave it a greasy look. They went out together in large groups and danced long into the night to a new style of music known as rock ‘n’ roll.

Beer was their drug – albeit a liquid and legal one. It fuelled this fashion.

Their British counterparts were known as Teddy Boys or Teds for short. This was after their penchant for wearing Edwardian-style long jackets and frilled shirts.

It all seems gently nostalgic now. But back then it was seen as outrageous with even the wearing of T-shirts that had previously been only worn as underwear causing controversy. There was also copious amounts of smoking that went with the beer drinking.

These similar styles across the Atlantic from each other that were connected with a music style and alcohol was just the beginning of a phenomenon that grew and lasted for the next few decades…

The 1960s: Mods; rhythm and blues; amphetamines

1960s and drug abuse

Mod was a largely British subculture that started in the early 1960s. But it was one that spread to America and around the world. 

The term mod comes from “modernist”. It was a word used since the 1950s to describe modern jazz musicians and those who listened to this music.

The mods were young people who wanted to show they had some disposable income. So they dressed the part.

This was in such as tailor-made suits with narrow lapels, button-down collar shirts, thin ties and desert boots. Their hairstyles imitated the look of French nouvelle vague film actors – think early Beatles.

Originally listening to some styles of jazz and the original rhythm and blues (R&B) music that was from 1940s America, soon there were mod bands such as The Who, The Rolling Stones and The Kinks. Mods went to dances at clubs to listen to their sounds, a growing number arriving on Italian scooters.

These dances lasted all night and so to stay awake a great many mods took amphetamines. A very popular type was nicknamed “purple hearts” that was a combination of amphetamine and barbiturate called Drinamyl.

The 1970s: Hippies; psychedelia; LSD

1970s hippies and drug abuse

Although punk may have later challenged it the hippies were probably the major international subculture of the 1970s. Beginning in the late 1960s in America it swiftly spread totally around the world. 

With the hippies came psychedelic music (also called psychedelia) such as that of The Doors, Jimi Hendrix, The Beatles and The Grateful Dead. There was also a style of folk music such as Joan Baez and Bob Dylan that tied in with the hippie political ideals of overhauling the system.

Marijuana was a popular drug with the hippies, but it was LSD that really defined them. They grew their hair long and dressed in loose-fitting Indian or Moroccan-style clothes as a result of many travelling in search of themselves and a greater meaning to life.

This culture was so widespread and grew with such momentum that it greatly concerned the authorities. Eventually, though it just started to fade away.

What it has most definitely left us with though is today’s green movement as well as an awareness in yoga, meditation, inner searching and natural healing.

The 1980s: Punks; punk rock; speed

1980s disco and drug abuse

Although it started “officially” in 1976 with bands in the US and UK such as The Ramones, Richard Hell And The Voidoids, Sex Pistols and The Damned shouting their way to infamy it wasn’t really until the early 1980s that it became the international movement that we will always know.

It was a sound and a look that could not be ignored. That look developed from the late 1970s into one of brightly dyed spiky hair, leather studded biker jackets, sleeveless band T-shirts, ragged jeans and scuffed-up boots.

It was all so brash and fast. The punk “dance” was the pogo (jumping straight up and down) or moshing – which involved deliberately colliding with others moshing.

All this release of youthful merrymaking and tension took huge amounts of energy. As it was so fast it was the drug “speed” (slang for amphetamine) that created lots of the music and it was speed that helped the punks to keep up with it when at a gig.

In a separate world, another style of music that had started in the 1970s was booming. That was disco. The drug to keep going to this music that was made for dancing in clubs was cocaine.

In fact, cocaine addiction was rife in the 1980s. This was also connected with the “get rich at all costs” yuppie culture.

The 1990s: Ravers; house music; ecstasy

1990s rave music and drug abuse

At the end of the 1980s, a great number of yuppies had made themselves a fortune. But they were burned out and at the very least on the verge of having an emotional breakdown. Many already had.

They felt empty. Money had not bought them the meaning or happiness they’d been promised by the governments of the day.

In the previous decade, a style of music had emerged from Chicago and Detroit called house music. It featured repetitive beats that were perfect to dance to and anyone could dance to this development of disco.

In the Spanish island of Ibiza, there had for many decades existed a culture of decadence, with such as all-night clubs. They were playing a lot of house music.

A few young British people that had visited took it back to London and started playing the same in a small sweaty club called Shoom. From here it took off and is still with us today in a massive way.

Many of these original ravers took LSD but also ecstasy (known as E or MDMA among other things). It was this drug and house music that took things to a new level.

By the 1990s all around the world, thousands of people were taking ecstasy and dancing at all-night raves. In Britain alone, it was estimated that by the mid-1990s more than a million ecstasy tablets were being taken every weekend.

Ravers wore similar styles to the hippies. These were baggy clothes that made it easy to dance and stopped overheating from dancing wildly into the early hours. 

It gave birth to DJs as mega-celebrities. The raves around the world just got bigger.

But also inevitably there was lawlessness and there were some deaths too. So the authorities clamped down – to the point where in Britain it was made illegal to hold a lot of these events.

With the new millennium came an unprecedented change in technology. Consequently, the internet has altered forever the way we listen to music.

It also altered the way we shop, connect and socialise. It means that perhaps the link between a fashion style, a musical genre and a particular drug will not be seen again in the way it used to be.

With music for instance rather than be into one style so much, people tend to listen to several styles. Many new bands even mix up genres on their albums.

One of the forces behind a subculture was gaining an identification, which is why many young people were drawn to one or another. But now social media does this to a large extent.

There has been a boom in legal highs. In fact, drug use overall is higher than it ever has been, including legal and illegal drugs.

This has led to increased addiction to such as tramadol and Xanax. It also means that for every high there is a low – and many people who use lots of drugs will at some point realise that the lows are bigger and last much longer than any of the highs.

There are of course still some pockets of music and fashion “tribes”. For many these subcultures are brief and perhaps just a part of being young, having fun and growing up looking for a place in the world.

For others though the drugs connection leads to serious mental health problems. Tragically thousands of people each year still die as a result of drug abuse.

Contact us today to discover how White River Manor can help you or someone you care about with a drug problem.

How to overcome social anxiety disorder

October 12th, 2020 by

According to Psychologist Hans Eysenck, there are two main personality types – there are the introverted characters, and those who lean more towards extraversion. 

Introverts tend to experience life in more subjective realms and prefer their own company over the company of others, while extroverts live in opposition to this.

Extroverts tend to get their energy from people and like to roam around in groups. Extroverts also tend to experience life more objectively.

But, irrespective of personality type social anxiety is rife within most communities, it also appears that anyone can experience it.

What is social anxiety disorder?

Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a long-term condition that presupposes a phobia of social situations. The anxiety can be so severe that it can cause excessive worry and a person to become overly self-conscious particularly when in social situations.

Not to be confused with being painfully shy or bashful, social anxiety disorder features the kind of symptoms that, if left untreated, can have a severe impact on an individuals life. 

Symptoms of social anxiety disorder often include:

Whereas bashfulness or extreme shyness is a short-term condition, a social anxiety disorder can disrupt the life of the sufferer to the point where they often become socially avoidant. 

The negative impact that social anxiety disorder has on a person’s life appears to be all-encompassing. The condition often impacts a person’s ability to:

Social anxiety disorder is non-discriminatory

Research suggests that social anxiety disorder is non-discriminatory. From the cheerful mailman through to that outgoing friend, you know, the one that oozes confidence by the bucket loads – it seems anyone of us can fall into the clutches of this debilitating disease.

The condition affects around 6.8% of the US population and is as common in men as it is in women. Studies also show that it often takes ten years for people to seek treatment for social anxiety disorder after experiencing life-long debilitating symptoms.

Social anxiety disorder is a widespread issue, and it seems that even Hollywood celebrities are not exempt from the condition. Celebrities including Jennifer Lawrence, Lady Gaga, Drew Barrymore, and Jim Carrey have all admitted to experiencing high levels of social anxiety.

Due to the nature of their careers, actors and performers are at significant risk of developing some form of social anxiety disorder. Unfortunately, because of this, they are also at higher risk of developing anxiety and depression, and in some cases, a substance addiction.

For example, actor, Owen Wilson, admitted to making several suicide attempts in the past, he has also battled with ongoing depression and drug addiction.

Interestingly, social anxiety disorder affects people (celebrity or non-celebrity) in similar ways, which means that treatment for the condition is executed, in the same fashion. 

What causes social anxiety disorder?

anxiety and being outdoors

There are currently no definitive causes identified for social anxiety disorder as such.

However, there is an amalgamation of causal factors that often play a role in the development of the condition. 

They include:

Other Factors

Statistics show that roughly 30 to 40 percent of those suffering from a social anxiety disorder, are those who possess specific genetic components, meaning that a first-degree relative likely has (or has had) the condition at some stage.

Researchers have also found a strong correlation between specific chromosomes associated with other disorders such as panic disorder and agoraphobia, the same chromosomes that link to social anxiety disorder.

Changes in brain structure have also been identified as one of the pathways leading to social anxiety disorder, as the neurotransmitters are often impaired, which cause the chemicals in the brain to become imbalanced.

Overcoming social anxiety disorder

There are several effective treatments available for combating social anxiety disorder. Here we will examine each one of them in detail.


There is a mixture of therapies designed to help people cope with the symptoms of social anxiety disorder. They include:

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy

Also referred to as CBT, Cognitive Behavioural Therapy is the first-line treatment many therapists recommend for social anxiety-related disorders. CBT allows an individual to explore any limiting self-beliefs they may hold, challenge them, and occasionally put those beliefs to the test.

Since social anxiety is often emotionally crippling, feelings of embarrassment and shame are often the centrepiece of this condition. 

Challenging patients by putting them in real-life scenarios can often be an effective way for them to overcome their anxieties. This technique is similar to ‘flooding’ where patients become exposed to that which they fear.

Social anxiety sufferers tend to ruminate after being in a social situation. They might replay a scene in their minds over and over and often believe that what they said or done in any given scenario was perhaps silly or embarrassing. This ruminating causes them to self-punish and isolates them further. 

Since CBT challenges negative thoughts and behaviours, it is often helpful to challenge patients by (as an example) getting them to ask a shopkeeper silly questions such as, ‘’why is the milk-white and not blue’’. Maybe not that exact question, but you get the point!

CBT is an active, collaborative therapy that seeks to explore the exact cause of what maintains a persons’ anxiety. 

Over time, patients learn to challenge and explore their thoughts and behaviours, and are very often encouraged by a therapist to face their fears with the understanding that having a fear come true ‘’isn’t that bad after all’’.

Psychodynamic Therapy

Psychodynamic therapy originates back to Freudian times (the 1900s) and is sometimes combined with other therapy treatments such as CBT.

The basis of psychodynamic therapy is ‘talk therapy’ where the patient explores any past conflict in an attempt to resolve it. Essentially, psychodynamic therapy brings forth a person’s subconscious desires, wishes and conflict that perhaps they are unaware of, but are driven to self-destruct as a result of those unresolved conflicts.

Since psychodynamic theory holds the view that adult conflict originates from unaddressed childhood trauma, therapists work on the premise that identifying a person’s subconscious and repressed experiences will help treat present anxiety disorders such as social anxiety. 

Psychodynamic therapy believes conflict to be a result of:

Psychodynamic therapy aims to expose any underlying conflict that perhaps might be the cause of social anxiety disorder and work through these issues for long-term resolution.


Medication will be dependent on many factors, for example, if there are any other co-occurring disorders present. 

Patients are typically prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for symptoms of persistent social anxiety. Other medications such as serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRI) may also be prescribed.

Antidepressants, beta-blockers and anti-anxiety medications can also be an effective treatment for symptoms of social anxiety disorder and are prescribed at the discretion of each individual doctor.

Other practical steps you can take that may help with a social anxiety disorder include:

At White River Manor, we specialise in helping people to understand any self-limiting beliefs they might hold about themselves, and ultimately work towards resolution and long-term recovery.  Contact the team today and find out how we can help.

Spotting the signs of a personality disorder

September 24th, 2020 by

Within the mental health community, personality disorders are defined as a set of mental illnesses involving long-term behaviours and thoughts that are rigid and unhealthy.

What is Personality Disorder? 

Psychiatrists believe personality disorder (PD) to be an innate pattern of behaviour that is specified in the way it develops (comparable to other mental health disorders that often develop for a multitude of different reasons).

The type of behaviour observed in those suffering from PD often diverges from social norms and that which is deemed ‘socially acceptable’ and can cause severe impairment on a person’s interpersonal relationships and social standing. 

Since many of the personality disorders are ego-syntonic (meaning that they are reflective of a person’s self-concept or ‘idea of self’), they often present many treatment challenges for mental health professionals.

Essentially, an individual’s desire to change a behaviour that causes upset to others is usually met with disdain.

Fortunately, since the development of applied therapeutic techniques, mental health professionals are noticing much more positive outcomes for those suffering from a personality disorder with research suggesting that positive change is possible.

Broadly, a personality disorder is a long-term series of inclinations in one’s thinking and behaviour that significantly impacts their social functioning. Depending on the type of PD, a person’s personality traits (including any extreme traits) are often reflected or heightened.

The different types of Personality Disorder

whiteriver manor - personality disorders

Personality disorders are grouped into three main clusters, with each having an individualised set of diagnostic criteria.

They include: emotional and impulsive, anxious, and suspicious.

The ten personality disorder types are:

Spotting the signs of personality disorder

Cluster type A

This group of disorders often feature bizarre or overly eccentric thinking styles and behaviour patterns which include: distrust, strange or unusual belief systems, and social unattachment.

Cluster type B

The behaviour for those belonging to this cluster often involves emotional dysregulation, impulsive behaviour, and hostility and/or manipulation towards other people. 

Cluster type C

Cluster C personality disorders include anxiety and fear-induced thinking styles.

How personality disorders develop

Studies show that personality disorders usually develop because of:

Other studies show that malfunctioning genes may also contribute to the development of personality disorders, particularly when it comes to Obsessive-Compulsive personality disorder. 

Personality disorders often develop as a way of coping with disturbing life experiences; if someone was neglected or abused in any way, for example, they might adopt a personality disorder to cope with the situation.

Essentially, one doesn’t just ‘develop’ a personality disorder; they emerge over long periods.

Risk groups

Those with a likelihood of developing a personality disorder include:


Due to the severe nature of personality disorders, it is often the case that complications can arise.

Personality disorders can lead to issues at work, home or school; they can also result in the development of poor relationships, social withdrawal, and addiction problems.

Treatment for Personality Disorders

personality disorders and recovery at white river manor

As mentioned earlier, it can often be challenging for mental health professionals to treat patients who are diagnosed with a personality disorder – since the disorder affects those whose perception of ‘self’ can be somewhat distorted or obscure. 

Most individuals with a personality disorder tend to be in denial and refuse to believe that they have a condition at all.

Although the disorder must be treated for the symptoms to be overcome. For those willing to accept treatment for personality disorder, there is a wide range of therapies available. They include:

Talk therapies, such as psychotherapy and counselling are also very effective in treating a wide range of personality disorders as it encourages an individual to talk through their feelings, thoughts, and behaviours in a safe and trusting environment. 

Residential inpatient personality disorder programs are extremely effective, particularly in chronic cases. For instance, those with Borderline personality disorders, find residential treatment programs very effective as it allows them to receive the support they need when it comes to regulating any behaviours and emotions that might be unpleasant.


Medications often prescribed to those suffering from personality disorder include:

According to statistics, around 10 per cent of outpatient rehabilitation admissions involve some form of Borderline personality disorder, and approximately 42.4 per cent of patients who have been diagnosed with a personality disorder are receiving treatment.

This suggests that inhouse rehabilitation programs are extremely effective when it comes to treating the various types of personality disorders.

We’re here to help.

Contact us today if you’d like a confidential and free chat with one of our highly-trained professionals.

5 self-care activities to try after rehab (and during the pandemic)

September 21st, 2020 by

People who report feeling lonely are more than twice as likely to also have a substance abuse disorder.

Loneliness is an epidemic, and it’s often a major cause of addiction. It’s also a big part of relapse. During treatment, we’re taught to rely on our friends and families for support, but given the global pandemic, many of us are without this support network and are instead left relying on ourselves to maintain healthy habits. 

Understandably, this is no easy feat. And without a robust self-care routine in place, it’s near impossible. However, by putting yourself first and taking control of your routine, you can stave off the urges to reuse and continue with confidence on your journey to recovery. All it takes is a little self-love.

Here are five self-care activities to try after rehab (and during lockdown).


replacing sport for bad habits

Many recovering addicts turn to exercise for a similar release to substances. In all forms, exercise produces a release of similar hormones to drugs, only without the dangerous and debilitating side effects.

The benefits of being outdoors are also well documententated.

There’s a reason it’s called the ‘runner’s high’. If you’re stuck indoors and feeling a little restless, then, start developing an exercise routine. 

But don’t just take our word for it. A small study investigated an exercise program offered to 38 men and women who misused a variety of substances. Participants agreed to take part in group exercise three times a week for two to six months. Twenty people completed the intervention. When reassessed a year later, five reported abstinence and 10 reported that they had decreased their substance use.

Exercise is the perfect way to distract yourself from cravings. It’s also an excellent way to add structure to your day.

Eat well

nutrition at white river

Food directly affects our mood, and our mood is everything when it comes to controlling our urges.

A poor diet consequently reduces our ability to control these urges. It clouds our mind and leads to weaker self-control. 

Ultimately, eating good foods makes you feel good about yourself. When you feel good, you’re less likely to use substances. 

Know when to switch off

mindfulness and stress

Working hard on yourself is great. But much like substances, wellness can become addictive, and this poses a problem.

When we set standards that are exceedingly high, it becomes easier to fail. And with failure comes lower self-esteem and a downward spiral back into addiction. 

While it’s important to work hard on yourself, it’s also vital to know when to turn that side of your brain off, give yourself a break and relax.

Without downtime, you’ll burnout on working on yourself, and that’s cause for disaster. 

Reduce stress

Reducing stress is easier said than done. But stress is often one of the major factors in addiction, and many people turn to substances to ‘escape’ it.

To do this, it requires a little mindfulness. Know when you’re feeling overwhelmed or overworked and know the tactics to deploy to mitigate this feeling. Sleep, good food, meditation and exercise, for example, will help you find that reset button.

Talk to people

therapy at white river manor

Sure, COVID-19 has forced us to spend our days indoors and, in some cases, alone. But that doesn’t mean that you have no support system. Reach out to friends over the internet, grab coffee with family members, or pick up the phone and call your therapist. 

Whatever it is, talking about our concerns and vulnerabilities is the best chance we have to overcome addiction and remain sober. Remember: no person is an island. 

As a last resort, return to rehab

Welcome to White River Manor

Of course, if you’re overwhelmed by your urges and end up relapsing, a return to rehab may be in order.

Unfortunately for many, a return to rehab causes intense feelings of guilt, failure and shame

We’re here to tell you that it shouldn’t. Life can be tricky sometimes and asking for more help along your journey to recovery should be embraced, not ignored.

The best part is: If you do return to rehab, you’ll know exactly what to expect. In fact, you’re already halfway down the road back to recovery.

To find out how White River Manor can help, contact an expert today.

6 ways to build resilience and why it’s so crucial

September 16th, 2020 by

Resilience is the ability to bounce back quickly from difficulties, also referred to as a person being tough, stoic, flexible, and robust. 

As you might be able to tell, there are plenty of adjectives that can be used to describe resilience!

What is resilience and where can I get some?

According to mental health experts, resilience is the psychological quality that allows some people the opportunity to bounce back after the adversities of life have knocked them down. 

This often manifests as a person being more robust than they were before or allows them to at least return back to their emotional baseline where adversity is manageable.

Regardless, resilience isn’t something that can be bought off the shelf and neither is it a result of good DNA. Resilience is something that is built over time as a person moves through their unique set of life challenges and difficulties.

Highly resilient people don’t tend to allow failure, traumatic experiences, or life’s disappointments to overcome them, instead, they find a way to emotionally heal, change paths and continue moving in the direction of their goals.

How resilience develops

Psychologists believe that resilience can come from a whole range of personal attributes including: 

Interestingly, genetic predispositions do correlate to how someone might handle challenging situations. However, early life experiences and environmental factors play a huge role in how resilience through DNA is expressed.

Positive thinking, for example, can often help to soften the blow in the wake of a traumatic event (depending on the event of course). 

There are plenty of examples where trauma victims have managed to turn disturbing experiences around and become advocates for networks such as groups for survivors of domestic violence and bereavement.

It’s complicated

It is often more complicated for those who have experienced trauma to ‘think on the bright side’ if they did not receive adequate support during and after a traumatic event occurred.

In cases of domestic abuse, for example, it’s common for survivors to blame themselves for what their abuser did to them. In complicated bereavement, there is also a tendency for the griever to blame themselves for the death of a loved one with or without justification.

Trauma experts explain that trauma can often get ‘stuck’ in the nervous system resulting in addictive tendencies, relationship issues, and a whole plethora of mental health problems for the sufferer.  Although building a platform for resilience in complicated cases might prove challenging, it is possible. 

With the help of therapy, trauma can be worked through and released from the nervous system allowing an individual to understand any unhelpful ‘triggers’ and responses to external life challenges and, if need be, modify them.

Managing Stress

Stress management tools can help to enhance emotional resistance enabling an individual to get through tough times. It also allows them to build resilience safely in the knowledge that they can and will get through.

There are several ways in which a person can manage their stress including:

  1. Allowing themselves to enjoy pleasurable activities and hobbies and clearing busy schedules 
  2. Changing their perception of stress and try to look at challenges as an opportunity for growth and learning 
  3. Exercising the body and mind – this can take many forms such as long hikes or bike riding through to daily meditation
  4. Using positive mantras such as ‘I know I can handle this’ and ‘I’ve got this’

Why Resilience Is So Important

Resilience offers people the opportunity to:

Developing an emotional threshold to stress is an important life tool as it allows us to problem-solve without the interference of emotions. When our emotions become turbulent, it can be extremely challenging to ‘switch off’ and find the right solution.

Our ‘thinking brain’ needs time to process new information and this is where resilience steps in.

If you imagine someone being repeatedly punched on the same spot of the arm, after a while they’ll likely stop feeling any pain at all as the body builds resilience and the pain threshold becomes greater.

In this way, our internal lives are not that different to our external lives. Essentially, the more ‘hits’ we take, the more resilient we become which increases our ability to handle stressful situations more effectively.

Building Resilience

Several ways that people can start to build resilience almost immediately include:

Believing in Yourself

Practising self-care rituals consistently can have a positive impact on our emotional health. Essentially, putting our most basic needs first such as regular exercise, good nutrition, meditation, and journaling often contributes to levels of self-esteem and how much we believe in ourselves in any situation. The more we put our own needs first, the higher our self-esteem will be.

Finding Purpose

When people experience extreme adverse situations, it often leaves them with emotional scars. Many people find that searching for a new purpose or life goal can be extremely cathartic. Victims of bullying, for example, might become actively involved in campaigns against bullying and harassment. Essentially, finding purpose empowers people to turn a negative into something more positive, it also gives them new meaning.

Embracing Change

The ability to adapt and thrive is an essential building block leading to resilience.  When faced with a crisis, it is common for people to crumble and become stuck where they are, those high in resilience allow themselves the space to experience any sad emotions before looking towards a brighter future. 

Looking After Yourself

As mentioned earlier, self-care plays a pivotal role when it comes to resilience. Those with existing mental health conditions or addiction disorders, need to pay special attention to what their minds and bodies are telling them, especially in times of crisis. When the going gets tough, it’s all too easy for people to revert to unhealthy coping mechanisms, hence why nurturing the mind and body is so important to prevent relapse from occurring. Getting the right amount of sleep, eating a balanced diet, and consulting with a therapist are all helpful ways to practise self-care during difficult times. 

Practise Problem-Solving

The ability to effectively solve problems plays a huge part in how someone can bounce back from adversity. Being able to compartmentalise emotions in a solution-oriented way helps us to figure out what to do in any given situation. Emotions can be helpful problem-solvers too. Just not when they are high in intensity. A good way to practice problem-solving is to write down a list of realistic solutions and go through each one carefully.  This helps to apply logic instead of high-intensity emotions and allows people the space to come up with possible solutions.

Changing Your Perspective

Dr Wayne Dyer infamously said that ‘’When we change the way we look at things, the things we look at change.’’  Sometimes what we perceive to be a problem is often a call to action or a positive misdirection of some kind. For example, someone might hate their day job, but do nothing about it until one day they are made redundant. Amidst all the worries of becoming unemployed, the chances are the person will go on and find a job that is better suited to them. The same principle can be applied to other areas of one’s life. Oftentimes, change is required for people to level up enabling them to build their emotional capacity.

There are many other ways that people can build resilience. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, for example, can help an individual to understand any old patterns that are no longer helpful to them.

At White River Manor, we provide a safe and encouraging platform for people to explore their journey of transformation. Get in touch with the team today to discuss how we can help support you through this journey.

5 signs you might be suffering from a health anxiety disorder

September 10th, 2020 by

Health anxiety sometimes referred to as ‘hypochondriasis’ is a debilitating mental health condition.

Unfortunately, because of its nature, it can very often be challenging for medical professionals to accurately diagnose (in comparison to other mental health issues).

What is Health Anxiety

Illness anxiety disorder (or health anxiety) is a psychological disorder characterised by excessive preoccupation with one’s health. 

Often categorised within the OCD (obsessive Compulsive Disorder) spectrum, health anxious people have an obsessive preoccupation with either being ill (or becoming ill).

The health preoccupation is often so debilitating that it can impact nearly every aspect of a person’s life.

The worries a typical health anxiety sufferer endures are centred around the possibility of them contracting a serious disease such as Cancer, AIDS, Meningitis and Heart Disease.

Essentially, dangerous and life-threatening diseases often feature at the top of the list for all health anxiety sufferers.

The physical symptoms experienced by health anxiety sufferers can be real or imagined. In cases where the symptoms are real, the persons’ misinterpretation of minor body sensations is often way out of scope despite reassurance from a medical professional.

Harmless physical symptoms often become a massive cause of concern for health phobics.

A skin rash can quickly escalate to meningitis, that lump on the arm is most definitely cancer and the stomach ache that’s been lingering all day could never be down to the dodgy takeaway from the night before. No. It must be a sign of a serious intestinal problem. Likely an incurable one.

Why people develop health anxiety

health anxiety disorder

According to research, experts aren’t sure of the exact reason why people develop health anxiety.

However, contributory factors might include:

Studies show that health anxiety usually develops in early adulthood and often worsens with age. 

Other at-risk groups who have a likelihood of developing health anxiety include:

Some experts believe that health anxiety is prevalent in those who have a natural propensity to worry. Genetic factors also play a role as does each individual’s life experiences. 

Interestingly, according to psychologists, an intolerance to uncertainty can also put someone at significant risk of developing a health anxiety disorder, as health itself can often be unpredictable. 

This lack of tolerance can often spell disaster as it can be very challenging for health anxiety sufferers to ‘sit with their symptoms’ without excessively worrying or having the compulsion to do something about it, such as constantly checking their body or researching their symptoms on the internet.

Health anxiety may be more common in women and occurs in up to 5% of patients visiting GP surgeries.

The difference between a health problem and health anxiety

Since many anxiety symptoms often replicate that of a serious illness, such as:

 It’s important for people to discuss their concerns with a doctor.

Your doctor may ask you about any new, changing, persistent and recurrent symptoms. If after examining you, your doctor concludes that the problem is solely anxiety (rather than a physical illness) then it’s likely that they are correct.

Fortunately, most doctors are able to distinguish between anxiety-related symptoms and sensations since many of the symptoms associated with a disease are unlike those caused by anxiety alone.

It’s perfectly plausible to seek a second, or even third opinion if your symptoms persist and you are still worried. 

Although you can be confident that if all three medical opinions are the same, then it’s likely that anxiety/stress is the cause of your symptoms and not a medical problem.

The health anxiety trap

There are several aspects experienced in health anxiety that can very quickly spiral into a vicious cycle.  

This cycle often lasts a long time, especially if the sufferer is unaware of the thoughts and behaviours that can lead them to become trapped in health anxiety. 

Five signs that someone might be suffering from health anxiety include:

Avoidant behaviour or overexposure

Since health anxiety sufferers are in a constant state of worry and preoccupation over their health, they have a tendency to either completely avoid or overly expose themselves to anything health-related (such as doctors, GP surgeries, health documentaries/articles, hospitals, sick people etc). 

If someone is worried about having breast cancer, for example, they may avoid being naked and rush through daily routines such as bathing to avoid looking at that part of their body. 

When someone is being avoidant, they might experience relief when they are fully clothed since the symptoms of breast cancer are not obvious this way.

However, for someone who is overly exposing themselves, they often feel compelled to constantly examine their breasts for any underlying symptoms. It’s also possible for someone to bounce between being avoidant and overly exposing.

This adds to the point that intolerance to uncertainty is prevalent for individuals experiencing health anxiety.

Reassurance seeking behaviours

health anxiety disorder

Giving reassurance to a health anxiety sufferer is the equivalent of giving drugs to a drug addict.

The way that reassurance typically plays out in illness anxiety disorders is extremely short-term. The sufferer may experience immense relief when given the ‘all clear’ by a doctor. Still, moments, hours, or perhaps even days later, the worry starts to creep back in.

The ‘high’ that most health anxiety sufferers experience when given reassurance is similar to the addictive behavioural patterns found in substance misuse.

Unfortunately, the mania only lasts so long before the same thoughts of worry become invasive again. Hence, the cycle ensues:

Health worry + reassurance-seeking + given appropriate reassurance from a doctor or loved one = temporary relief and the health worry resurfacing.

When someone excessively seeks reassurance, they are raising the bar for future anxiety, as this behaviour feeds into the cycle of future worrying and the sense to seek out even more reassurance!

Health anxiety sufferers may go as far as justifying their reassurance-seeking behaviours with the following statements:

  1. Not all doctors are right. The diagnosis can be wrong.
  2. Even though my doctor gave me good news, he/she still looked worried. Perhaps they are keeping important information about my health from me.
  3. Maybe my results got mixed up with someone else’s.
  4. I received a call from an unknown number. I’ll just ring the doctor’s office to make sure it wasn’t them.
  5. I was seen by a junior doctor. The next time, I’ll choose a more senior doctor to take care of me.

Checking the body for signs of disease AKA’ self – diagnosis’.

Self-diagnosis is perhaps one of the biggest commonalities in health anxiety. The person will excessively check their body for:

In the time it takes to have a shower, a person experiencing health anxiety will have diagnosed themselves with a plethora of life-threatening diseases. 

This excessive ‘symptom-checking’ also includes searching the internet and (often inaccurately) matching their symptoms to the most monstrous diseases out there.

Similar to how OCD works, examining oneself multiple times throughout the day – is a regular occurrence in health-anxiety disorders.  

Feeling guilty when other people around you are sick

Feeling guilty for another’s health misfortune is associated with magical thinking. It is, of course, nobody’s fault when someone around us becomes poorly. 

Although overwhelming feelings of guilt can manifest as overly compensating by going ‘above and beyond’ to help those who are unwell, fostering the blame for someone else’s illness often results in the compulsion to excessively take care of the sick.

The preoccupation of having or getting a disease

This is one of the more obvious signs that someone might be suffering from a health-related anxiety disorder. Key signs that someone might have a health preoccupation include:

Treatment for health anxiety

There are several effective treatments for health anxiety:

Things that health anxiety sufferers must do if they want to get better:

We’re here to help.

Contact us today if you’d like a confidential and free chat with one of our highly-trained professionals.

Is rehab good for treating depression?

August 27th, 2020 by

Many people think rehab centres are solely to help people suffering from an addiction. But in fact an increasing number of people are seeking treatment for depression at recovery and wellness centres such as White River Manor.

Depression is a potentially life-threatening mental health condition. In all cases it should be treated immediately by professionals who understand it.

Everyone feels sad at times as it’s a completely normal emotion. It helps us deal with certain situations – and we were give tears for a good reason.

However, depression is totally different to feeling sad for a few days about something. For a start, sometimes someone who’s depressed cannot even pinpoint any specific reason for why they are feeling so low.

It is a burgeoning major global mental health problem. According to WHO (the World Health Organization), depression is a mental disorder that affects 264 million people of all ages worldwide.

Depression can cause someone to suffer terribly. It may mean they function poorly at work, college, in the family and their community.

At its worst, depression can lead to death by suicide. Around 800,000 people die from suicide each year. 

Signs of depression

depression white river manor

Clearly it’s vital to know depression symptoms. If you or anyone you know shows these signs for more than a few days – especially if it’s for two weeks for most of each day – it’s essential to seek professional help without delay.

One of the great advantages of seeking treatment at a rehab centre is that our team is here to help 24 hours a day. We are very experienced in helping treat people with depression and have had great success in ensuring enduring recoveries.

Tailored programme

We have specially devised treatments for depression. Initially our team will establish what type of depression anyone has that seeks our help.

There are several kinds of depression including major depressive disorder (MDD), situational depression, premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), persistent depressive disorder (PDD) and seasonal affective disorder (SAD).

As soon as we establish which depression a guest is suffering from we will also look to see if there are any co-occurring disorders. These can include such as burnout, anxiety and addiction.

Then an individual treatment plan will be created. This is tailored to each guest’s therapeutic requirements and specific needs.

We know that everyone reaching out for our help is unique. We always treat the entire person.

So that means each guest will see our complete expert team. That includes psychologists, counsellors and nurses plus therapists in such as music and art

Then our gourmet chefs will ensure every meal has excellent nutritional value. As well as, of course, being delicious.

We also have a spa to give you luxury treatment such as full body massages, facials, manicures and pedicures. There’s a fully equipped private gym and a swimming pool too. 

Then there is our expansive and tranquil 21-hectare gardens, perfect for yoga, meditation or just reading a book. Or you can take a relaxing walk in nature along any of our extensive trails or try canoeing on the Sabie River.

In addition, there’s a mountain bike trail as well as other sporting options including golf, tennis and horse-riding. There’s also always excursions to the nearby stunning Kruger National Park where you can see zebras, elephant and lions.

Our guests have agreed with us that South Africa’s year-round sunny climate and the natural beautiful environment here are all great healers too. The sunshine is fantastic for helping with all mental health conditions, especially depression.

We’re fortunate to see sunrises and sunsets most days that are priceless. Another added consideration is that presently South Africa is unbelievable value for money.

Group therapy

Depression can leave someone feeling totally isolated. Being here with us all will immensely help alleviate that.

There’s the knowing that you’re surrounded by people who care 100 percent for your wellbeing and recovery. Then there are the other guests who have similar aims of recovery.

We have such as group therapy as part of our treatment. This is when guests under the guidance of one of our team will listen to and help each other.

Group therapy has been proven over the years to be extremely beneficial. We can also introduce guests to the 12 Steps recovery programme, one aspect of which involves a form of group therapy as well.

Lifetime recovery

one to one therapy on the patio at White River Manor

We will also offer our guests other therapy suitable for their personal recovery. That includes such as cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), mindfulness therapy, adult-child therapy and solution-focused therapy.

All of these have been shown to help people to a long-lasting recovery.

That is always our ultimate aim – that when one of our guests leaves here they have the knowledge and skills to deal with anything in life that could otherwise lead to depression again. We want their recovery to last for the rest of their lifetime.

Of course, all of this is set among our five-star manor house with its first-class luxury accommodation. Relaxation and good sleep are vital factors for a strong recovery.

Get in touch with us today to see how we can help you or someone you care about.

What are the signs of porn addiction?

August 17th, 2020 by

Addiction takes many devastating forms.

It can be defined as any habitual behaviour that you cannot seem to stop doing even though it is detrimental to yourself and/or others.

While most people associate addiction with drugs or alcohol, it can also be what is known as a behavioural addiction. These are compulsive behaviour patterns when someone repeatedly indulges in an activity despite its obvious negative impacts.

One behavioral addiction that has been continually increasing for the past two decades is porn addiction. This is when someone becomes dependent on pornography 

Negative consequences are very similar to those of drug addiction or alcoholism. These include disruption to work, relationships and daily life.

Some people addicted to porn may not notice any significant negative external impact. But they can feel terrible anxiety and shame about their excessive pornography use.

What is known as “impulse control” can be part of the overall problem. This means experiencing strong cravings to engage in a certain damaging behaviour and using it to get a “high” and release pressure.

Porn addiction is an escalating problem

In American alone, around 200,000 people are believed to be porn addicts. In fact, 68 million searches per day and more than a third of all internet downloads are related to porn. A third of porn viewers are women.

Indiana University’s Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender and Reproduction discovered that nearly 10 per cent of pornography users wanted to stop using porn – but admitted they couldn’t.

In the past 20 years, there has been a growing increase in the number of people addicted to technology. In those years the growth of the internet and the porn industry has made it all too easy for people to look at porn whenever they want.

Today it can be more discreet and cheaper than it ever was.

Many people are aware that someone they care about has this issue – and it could be that they are enabling their damaging addictive behavior

What are the most common signs of being a porn addict?

porn addiction white river manor

In a 2002 survey by the Kinsey Institute, 80 percent of people using porn said they felt “fine” about it. However, that still leaves 20 percent who do not feel fine about it.

There are several clear signs that porn addiction is a problem. These include:

What causes porn addiction?

Most addiction is an attempt to deal with bad feelings and trauma. There is a strong link between all addictive behaviors and childhood trauma.

Someone who’s suffered sexual abuse or been sexually assaulted may start viewing porn in an attempt to get some insight into certain sexual things. Or to mask feelings and memories that are too painful.

Watching porn can release one of the body’s feel-good chemical dopamine – that leads to a rush of adrenaline, especially during masturbation. Even the mere planning to watch porn can raise dopamine levels.

There are various possible other complex reasons. Our expert therapists are experienced in helping people deal with all major mental health problems including addictions to such as porn.

What is the treatment for porn addiction?

recovery from porn addiction

We always look at the overall physical, mental and emotional health of anyone who seeks help from us.

One of the first beneficial aspects we have here is that we are located in a beautiful tranquil setting in the great outdoors with plentiful fresh air and sunshine.

South Africa is renowned as an ideal country for aiding recovery. We enhance that with the ultimate comfort and luxury accommodation that we have here at White River Manor.

We offer a variety of first-class amenities during your stay with us, including our private gym, coffee shop and relaxing spa.

We have expansive 21-hectare gardens, a sparkling pool, and all around us there’s the chance for nature walks along many extensive trails.

Or take a ride on a mountain bike, play some golf, tennis or go horse-riding. We always aim to give our guests a full South African adventure too. Discover breathtaking views, have an elephant encounter and the unforgettable thrill of a Kruger Park safari.

Then there’s the delicious nutritional food – gourmet meals and the finest fresh ingredients – that we serve to all our guests. This is another important factor for mental wellbeing.

Research on behavioral addictions shows that nearly two-thirds of people with compulsive sexual behavior and more than a third of people with internet addiction have had or still have a co-occurring drug or alcohol disorder. People with porn addiction have a high risk of other disorders.

Our compassionate team will look carefully at all aspects of any problems. Then we have a range of proven effective treatments that we will prepare specifically for each guest.

We fully understand it can seem uncomfortable to talk honestly about certain behaviours and thoughts. But we know the need for confidentiality – and our superb team has helped many people achieve lasting recovery from porn addiction.

Contact us today to see how we can help you or someone you care about.

What does anxiety do to you?

July 9th, 2020 by

Anxiety is a feeling of worry and nervousness about something with an uncertain outcome. In mental health terms, it’s a serious nervous disorder marked by excessive uneasiness and apprehension – typically with compulsive behaviour or panic attacks.

If someone is experiencing anxiety over a period of time, they may have an anxiety disorder such as GAD (generalized anxiety disorder).

This means someone is anxious about life in general rather than one particular concern.

It means someone will feel continually tense, struggle to focus, easily get tired and yet suffer from insomnia. This is normally every day.

There are other types of anxiety disorder, such as panic disorder causing frequent panic attacks; various phobias including agoraphobia; OCD (obsessive-compulsive disorder); high functioning anxiety disorder, and PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder).

There is an internal sense of the world being in chaos, which is why these are known as disorders.

Whatever the anxiety type it feels different for everybody. Much of anxiety comes from how we deal with life on life’s terms, especially stressful things.

Although having some anxiety is a normal emotion that enables us to focus, for some people it becomes so excessive that a normal life becomes impossible.

Untreated anxiety can lead to all manner of emotional, mental and physical health problems.

What can anxiety do to your mind and emotions?

Depending on the severity and how long they’ve been suffering, someone with anxiety may:

Alongside mental problems, some people with anxiety say how they’re certain they are dying of an undiagnosed illness.

This is because their physical symptoms are so bad they think they cannot be “only anxiety”.

But anxiety can cause considerable physical conditions. Research shows that anxiety can increase the risk of getting such as stomach ulcers, heart problems and diabetes.

Physical effects of anxiety

It is clear that anxiety affects the body. This is because in the fight or flight mode our blood is redirected to our brain, arms and legs to best deal with the situation.

For people with anxiety this situation is frequently a perceived one. But the body doesn’t know this and so still gets ready for fight or flight.

This means the immune system is suppressed because it’s not so vital at the time as such as dealing with an aggressive dog by running away. The body’s nervous system releases stress hormones such as cortisol to boost blood-sugar levels and blood fats.

They are used by the body for fuel to fight or flee. But these are only meant to be for a short burst of activity.

If anxiety persists it can cause damage to tissues and organs that leads to serious health problems.

What can anxiety do to your body?

Someone with anxiety may have:

How else can anxiety affect someone’s life?

breathe coping with anxiety

Someone suffering from anxiety may have difficulty with aspects of their life.

This includes such as simply taking good care of themselves or starting and maintaining relationships.

It can negatively impact getting or keeping a job or achieving at college. It may even lead to someone dropping out from their studies.

Anxiety limits or can stop somebody from taking part in hobbies. Many people with anxiety withdraw from their friends and families.

Sometimes anxiety sufferers attempt to mask it by such as trying to over-achieve, perfectionism or controlling behavior. These are unsustainable though. That sets up the person for increased anxiety.

It can prevent someone from trying new things or visiting new places. At its extreme a person might be too anxious about even leaving their house.

Many people try to seek relief through alcohol, illegal or prescription drugs, cigarette smoking or overeating. If someone who’s very anxious does not seek help, it can lead to depression and suicidal thoughts.

What relieves anxiety?

There are many things anyone can do to relieve anxiety. One of the first things is to look at the way they think.

Being too anxious is usually caused by the response to a situation rather than the actual situation.

It is always advantageous to learn how to focus on positive things – and not to focus on what seems to be lacking. As well to know that most things we are anxious about never even happen.

Then such as regular exercise, being in the great outdoors, eating healthily and learning to relax especially through meditation and mindfulness are all great for mind and body.

Also to relax with a book or some comedy, cut down or quit alcohol and drinks containing caffeine, and stop smoking.

Other anxiety-busters include getting to know the triggers and avoiding them, getting into an attitude of gratitude, keeping everything in the day, staying connected to loved ones (yet avoid too much social media and news), and yoga.

Some people find certain medication helps while for others learning to stick to a routine, not taking on too much, practising calm breathing techniques and ensuring a decent sleep works.

A couple of other not so obvious beneficial things to do are to make sure to be kind and of service to other people. Then spend time with animals, such as stroking a pet cat (or dog) as clinical psychologist Jordan Peterson suggests for Rule 12 in his bestseller 12 Rules for Life: An Antidote to Chaos.

It’s highly likely that taking time out will be of immense benefit too.

Combine this with talking to a therapist who can help someone suffering to realize what thoughts and beliefs cause their anxiety. Then they can work with the person to lessen these. 

Our experienced team can help you or someone you care about deal with anxiety. Contact us today to find out more about our specific treatment options.

10 best ways to beat stress

June 26th, 2020 by

Stress is a state of mental and emotional tension that comes when we are facing or in a challenging situation. To a certain extent, it can be useful to help motivate and focus us.

But all too frequently it becomes a debilitating condition. This is because it is not meant to be a state of being that is with us for too long.

For some people, stress becomes their normal condition every day. This is unsustainable and not a good way to be.

The word itself is very revealing. “Stress” is from Middle English stresse and it’s a shortening of “distress” and partly as well from Old French estresse meaning “narrowness, oppression”. That’s based on Latin strictus meaning “drawn tight”.

“Distress” means “extreme anxiety, sorrow, or pain” and is based on Latin distringere that means “stretch apart”. Isn’t that so often the cause of stress and how it feels: there’s just too much to do or even think about and so we feel completely stretched apart?

Stress and burnout

Considerable hours and constant demands on business owners and executives often cause a great deal of stress. That can lead to executive burnout.

What are the signs of stress?

It’s not that you will necessarily have all these signs, but certainly, if you have a few of them, it could indicate you are stressed.

From a physical perspective alone, that’s not healthy for anyone.

But it also means we will underperform and not be able to make the best decisions. Thankfully, there are many ways of coping with stress and anxiety.

These are a range of physical and mental/emotional practices. Those who have the greatest success with them have found they work best if devoted to on a daily basis. That means to keep doing them even when things are going well, and life doesn’t feel stressed.

How do you relieve stress?

replacing sport for bad habits
  1. Use breathing exercises that calm you.
  2. Try to keep everything in the day. Even better is to keep it in the now!
  3. Let go of anything you cannot change. Then you can put your focus and energy on more productive things that you can do, change or influence.
  4. Do not smoke or drink excessively or take illicit drugs to relieve stress. Limit your caffeine consumption. These will not help at all in the long-term.
  5. Learn how to meditate and/or take up yoga. 
  6. Exercise and do sport. Exercise and sports produce a chemical in the brain called endorphin, our natural painkiller. Physical activity (although not too near to bedtime) will also improve the ability to sleep. 
  7. Get into the outdoors. Ideally, in the sunshine, that as well as giving us vitamin D, feels more relaxing. At White River Manor, we are firm believers in the benefits of being in nature and a sunny climate – it’s why we are where we are! We understand and encourage the benefits of quality time in the great outdoors to improve mental health.
  8. Slow down. Our modern world is a fast-paced, demanding place, especially for many who live in large towns or cities. It’s another reason why we have such success in helping people with stress.
    We are nestled along the White River, set within a beautiful 100-year-old garden and surrounded by rolling hills with the tropical African Lowveld forests in the distance. It’s quite simply, beautiful and very relaxing. As well, there are amazing animals to see nearby including rhinos, lions and elephants. They are bound to lift anyone’s spirits!
  9. Eat and drink well. Certain foods are known to lift our mood, concentration and energy levels. Without a doubt, our diet can influence mental health, including stress levels. This includes drinking sufficient water. It helps balance mood and emotion, improves cognition and concentration, increases blood flow and oxygen to the brain and helps reduce stress. Beneficial foods include fresh fruits, vegetables, beans and whole grains. But snacks such as cakes, cookies and candy bars cause a spike in blood sugar that results in a crash and low mood.
  10. Massage is another way to reduce stress levels. It will release any tension held in your muscles, increase endorphin production, and lower heart rate and blood pressure.

Although some planning and preparation have to be done in life and at work, it’s beneficial to try being more conscious of the task in hand.

Worrying about the future doesn’t change anything. The only thing it guarantees is to ruin the moment.

There’s plenty that can be done to deal with stress. The sooner it is recognized and dealt with, the better.

Leaving it too long and not dealing with it will often lead to mental health problems as well as physical issues. 

The longer stress is left untreated, the progressively worse it will get.

white river manor

The executive burnout recovery program at White River Manor is tailored to a client’s specific needs.

We practice a holistic, person-orientated method which focuses on burnout symptoms within the individual.

At White River Manor, our dedicated professional specialist team has great experience helping people to reduce and beat stress. Get in touch to see how we can help you or someone you care about move towards a stress-free and more peaceful life.

Reasons to smile and be grateful

June 22nd, 2020 by

Children smile around 400 times per day, but as adults, we only smile about 20 times a day. That’s not healthy for adults as it’s been proven that smiling is good for us.

Not only that, it’s good for the world around us.

“Smile and the world smiles with you.” (The often unheard part of that is: “Cry, and you cry alone.”)

So we can learn a lot from children.

Basically, as adults, we stop living in the moment. Also, we demand more from life – so setting ourselves up for being dissatisfied.

Then, many of us carry resentments like a heavy boulder that means achieving our goals is even more difficult. It’s why so many relate to the Greek myth about Sisyphus who had to roll a boulder up a hill only for it to roll down every time it neared the summit, and he repeated this forever.

Children live in the now, have more acceptance, and if they do get a resentment, they are swiftly forgiving.

So many adults live in their head and are all about drive: what they need to do to get somewhere – but never enjoying the journey.

As John Lennon said: 

“Life is what happens while you are busy making other plans.”

Of course, children are generally unaware of what stress is.

This is because they don’t have anywhere near as much responsibility as we do when we are grown-up.

baby smiling

So they smile about 25 times every waking hour compared to an adult who on average smiles just a fraction more than once an hour over the day. Yet if we knew the benefits of smiling we’d surely do it more…

What are the benefits of smiling?

Boosts immune system

When we smile, our immune system is more effective because we’re more relaxed. That means the body knows we’re not in fight or flight mode when it redirects our blood to our brain, arms and legs – and that diminishes our immune system’s effectiveness.

It has also been discovered that smiling is a natural pain reliever as it releases chemicals called endorphins and serotonin. 

Helps us live longer

As well as boosting immune defences, smiling lowers heart rate and blood pressure.

Wayne State University researchers in the US studied 230 photos of baseball players from the 1952 season. It was found that those who didn’t smile had a 50 per cent chance of surviving to 80, whereas those with big smiles had a 70 per cent chance of reaching this age. 

Stress buster

Smiling reduces stress – amazingly, this is even if we force a smile. This is because the physical act of smiling activates neural messaging in the brain. The endorphins and serotonin that are released are known to be “feel-good” chemicals.

Look more confident and attractive

Studies show that people who regularly smile seem more confident and trustworthy. It is thought this is because we are naturally drawn to smiles.

This is why someone smiling will usually look more attractive. Muscles used to smile lift the face, which makes someone look younger too.

Spreads happiness

Uppsala University researchers in Sweden carried out a study in which people looked at photos of smiling or frowning faces.

They were asked to frown at a picture of someone smiling and vice versa. Electronic devices measured their facial movement, and it revealed it was much harder for them to frown at a photo of someone smiling than it was the other way round. So it’s true – smiling is infectious!

But since there is little we can do to avoid responsibility as adults – not least because many have children who need caring for every day – what can we do?

Many people have grown up in families that primarily focus on negative things, worst-case scenarios and what they don’t have in life. This sort of thinking doesn’t give much to smile about.

But it can be turned around with gratitude. That is, focus on all the positive aspects of life and what can go right with any ideas or plans. There is always something for which we can be grateful.

According to research published in the scientific journal Cerebral Cortex in 2008, gratitude stimulates the hypothalamus.

This is the part of our brain that regulates stress and is connected to our rewards pathways.

The more times a certain neural pathway is used, the clearer that way becomes. This is why anything we focus on grows bigger – our magnifying minds.

We have a choice over which we focus on of the estimated 70,000 thoughts a day we have (according to the University of Southern California’s Laboratory Of NeuroImaging).

Focusing on gratitude means we are choosing positive over negative.

How can I be more grateful?

Write a gratitude list every evening

One of the most beneficial ways is to write down before bedtime ten things for which you’re grateful. Include “big” things such as health, friends, food, nature, being alive; and it can be “small” things too – but that are also all too often taken for granted – such as the internet or your favourite TV show.

Meditate in the morning

In the morning, soon after waking up, read through your gratitude list. Then start the day in stillness and quiet rather than scrolling through social media or packing your mind with busy thoughts. If during the day you find yourself drifting away from positivity, reread the gratitude list. Or, any time, write a new one.

Give gratitude for some things you don’t like

This seems tricky, but people who do it say they feel much more positive in life. This works when, for instance, you are stuck behind a slow driver. Instead of negative thoughts, think positively by giving gratitude for such as having the chance to practice your patience and tolerance.

Think too of such as there’s a valuable lesson for you to leave more time for journeys. We can most nearly always learn and grow from things like this in life.

Be grateful for your partner and family

Many people – especially if they’ve grown up in a similar family – will focus on the negative in their partner and family. Focus on their positives instead.

If you haven’t got a partner or children, focus on the positives of being single and without the ties of having a family.

Write positive affirmations

Write such as: “I am worthy of good things”, “I can” or “I love myself and others unconditionally”. As with a gratitude list, it’s most beneficial to start the day with this. But also at any time, especially if not feeling positive.

At White River Manor, we offer a tailor-made program for you or someone you care about in 5 Star luxury nestled in stunning surroundings. Our positive experienced team here can help restore purpose, direction and self-worth.

What is clinical depression?

June 19th, 2020 by

There’s a big difference between feeling a little sad and having depression. In fact, we are made to have all sorts of emotions ranging from joy to sadness.

They are a completely natural part of life. But they should not be our “normal” state.

So if someone feels down for more than a few days, it could be because they have depression. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), depression is a mental disorder affecting more than 264 million people worldwide.

Depression is a real illness with debilitating symptoms. Anyone suffering from this condition needs professional help to overcome it.

What are the symptoms of depression?

The causes of depression are not completely understood.

But it’s believed there are several factors, including that someone may be more vulnerable to depression due to certain personality traits.

These are such as low self-esteem or being excessively self-critical. This could be because of genes and/or family habits they’ve been taught – for instance, how to react to certain things in life. Many families will habitually focus on the negative, what they lack and worst-case scenarios. This runs from generation to generation.

A traumatic experience in early life is considered to be another major factor in causing depression. This is such as abuse or the death of a parent.

For others, it’s something unwelcome in their present-day life that seems to be behind their depression. This includes redundancy, a relationship breakdown, serious illness or bereavement. It could be a combination of these.

Some studies have discovered people are also more likely to get depression as they get older. Other research points to a poor diet playing its part.

Some women are vulnerable to depression after pregnancy. Other factors include being isolated, using drugs, hypothyroidism, some head injuries and drinking excessively.

What does it mean to be clinically depressed?

Many people ask what a clinical diagnosis of depression is based on?

The DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) is the handbook published by the American Psychiatric Association that’s used by healthcare professionals around the world as the definitive guide to the diagnosis of mental disorders.

According to the DSM-5 someone must be experiencing five or more of the following symptoms during the same two-week period.

At least one of the symptoms has to be either depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure.

To receive a diagnosis of depression, these symptoms have to cause the person clinically significant distress or impairment in occupational, social or other important areas of functioning.

However, these symptoms cannot be due to another medical condition or substance abuse.

If it is determined that someone has severe long-term symptoms that are badly impacting on the quality of life, it’s referred to as clinical depression. This is sometimes also known as major depression or major depressive disorder.

Why is it important to identify and treat depression?

Depression can take on many forms.

This includes such as premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD); seasonal affective disorder (SAD); dysthymia (or persistent depressive disorder); situational depression; and bipolar disorder depression. More details on the types of depression can be found here.

It’s important that the type of depression is identified as this helps to find the most effective treatment. It’s also vital to identify if someone with depression has any other mental health conditions.

Common co-occurring conditions in people with clinical depression include:

What are the general methods used to treat depression?

replacing sport for bad habits

Treatment for depression frequently involves a combination of talking therapies, medicines and self-help. It depends on the type and severity of the depression.

There are several talking therapies that can help with depression, such as cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT).

CBT recognizes that events in the past may have had big influences, but it concentrates mostly on how to change the way we think, feel and behave in the present – for example, how to challenge feelings of hopelessness.

therapy at white river manor

Antidepressants are medicines that treat symptoms of depression. There are different types of antidepressants, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), one of the most commonly prescribed.

It is often asked: are antidepressants bad for you? They are generally considered safe, but as with all medical treatment, there can be some risk. They need to be prescribed by a doctor who can discuss this with a patient. More information on antidepressants can be found here.

There’s plenty of evidence that exercise can also help alleviate depression. This could include simply taking a daily walk, and exercising at the gym can help with feelings of loneliness.

Talking through feelings with a group can be useful to some people. There are self-help groups for people with depression. Also, there are many self-help books that deal with depression.

Eating a balanced healthy diet can be very beneficial as well. This means plenty of fresh fruits, vegetables, nuts, whole grains and fish.

At White River Manor, our specialist team has decades of experience treating depression. We tailor the program to individual experiences, which helps to make depression treatment much more effective.

The professionals at White River fully understand depression and will help you or someone you care about to be able to live a meaningful and fulfilling life.

Tech addiction: do you have a problem?

June 16th, 2020 by

If this headline has piqued your interest, it’s probably because you’re questioning whether you do indeed have an addiction to technology. 

Are you dependent on your devices? Do you feel the need to be in constant contact with others? Do you find yourself obsessively checking for emails, messages, missed calls? Are you continually engaged on social media – mindlessly scrolling for satisfaction? 

Like millions of us, we are attached to our devices most of the time, with some of us even “wearing” smartphones as a brand accessory.

A study carried out by software company RescueTime showed that an average user spends around 3 hours and 15 minutes per day on their phone and a top smartphone user will spend 4 hours and 30 minutes per day on devices.

As many of us struggle to go a day without technology, the threat of tech addiction is a growing problem.

What is tech addiction? 

Technology addiction is often described as the inability to control the use of technological devices such as smartphones, tablets, computers, and gaming systems. And in particular as a result of the use of various types of technology involving the internet, video gaming, shopping and numerous social media sites.  

Although technology is inevitable in our everyday lives, it’s important to differentiate from the regular use and the problematic, addictive use.

The effects of over-dependence can manifest itself in both physical and emotional symptoms. 

What are the symptoms of tech addiction?

social media overuse

Common symptoms include mood imbalance, insomnia, agitation, poor diet, denial, lack of control, loss of interest in important daily activities and neglect in relationships, work or school life.

Some individuals become so obsessed with online activities and social media that they have difficulties engaging with the present world.

Excessive use of technology, especially social media may have a negative impact on mental health and development, particularly among children and young adults.

Research suggests that young people who spend more than three hours a day on social media are more likely to report poor mental health and internalising behaviours – including anxiety and depression.  

Fighting for our undivided attention

While we are manipulated by the most powerful digital marketing channels that have a vested interest in keeping our eyeballs glued to their screens, we are also driven by the top tech forces the world has ever seen.

Tech giants like Google, Apple, Microsoft, Facebook and Amazon who have a far-reaching influence on millions of consumers worldwide. 

As these multi-billion companies fight for first place, a record-breaking number of active users are influenced by compelling technology. These sophisticated technologies rely on persuasive and motivational techniques to lure us in and keep us hooked.

Techniques which encourage specific human behaviour, for example, video gamers are driven by a developmental desire to gain skills and accomplishments.

The latest generation of video games are designed with triggers to increase the time spent playing on them – the more time spent, the more rewards you get or add-ons you’ll purchase. 

A craving for social media

Similarly, with social media companies, the motivation is the craving for social connection and popularity. A breeding ground for comparison, young adults, in particular, spend hours perfecting profile images and making comparisons with one another. 

Social media influencers, notorious for creating that perfect “Insta” pic, have a direct impact on the behaviour of followers – leading to the development of a self-absorbed culture of young people with potentially harmful outcomes. 

As advancements in technology continue to develop, the problem with addiction to smartphones becomes great. Dependency leads to feelings of distress and anxiety if we are out of mobile contact or without our phones. Often fuelled by the overuse of internet addiction, these feelings of fear and separation anxiety are known as “nomophobia” aka no-mobile-phone-phobia, a term coined by researchers 12 years ago and added to the online Cambridge dictionary in 2018. 

Even the most influential tech figures in the world: Steve Jobs and Bill Gates, are known to have limited their kid’s tech time at home.

So how do tech companies respond?

After years ensuring dependency is at the core of their designs – how have tech companies responded to consumer criticism on the overuse of technology? 

Tech giants Google and Apple offer screen time features that monitor and restrict phone use. Apple has also implemented a communications limit so that parents can set limitations on kids Contacts lists for incoming and outgoing phone calls, messages and FaceTime – whether during the permitted screen time or otherwise.  

Limiting screen time

With family time often compromised by continuous screen time, adults should also set a good example. Yet many parents find it challenging to limit screen time and are often just as guilty of digital distraction. To ensure children develop healthy habits parents need to first be aware of their own habits and introduce real boundaries and balance. Curbing screen time by banning phones or iPads at mealtimes and spending quality time together as a family doing fun activities is a good start.

Is technology really the problem?

Technologies like social media can offer a range of global benefits and opportunities. One of the most powerful benefits is the ability to raise global awareness of an important issue. Every day, more people, such as mental health and body-positive advocates, promote change and make positive interactions to a mass audience.

Social media is also a great platform for like-minded people with similar interests to share their views. It provides them with the opportunity to stay in touch and nurture relationships around the world. 

Like it or not, technology has also become essential in today’s schools. It is an integral part of modern-day learning with students and teachers constantly engaging inside and outside of the classroom.

Technology in the classroom can help students learn useful life skills needed to be successful in the education and careers of the future. 

While technology can add a wealth of value to our lives it’s important to use it mindfully and find a healthy balance with other aspects of “real” daily life. 

If you’d like to discuss your tech use with one of our clinicians, contact us today for a free and no obligations chat.

The Reenactment of Trauma

June 11th, 2020 by

It seems like a riddle: those who have experienced past trauma often put themselves in situations to experience similar trauma.

It’s not a conscious decision either. They don’t think to themselves: I will put myself through more pain on purpose.

These people may continuously find themselves in toxic, abusive relationships. They may become violent, chronically depressed, or deep into financial problems. They may seem to go in a positive direction for a while and then seemingly choose to do something to sabotage themselves.

Maybe you know someone like this, or maybe this describes you. Perhaps you feel that you cannot find a healthy relationship.

You are drawn toward those who are toxic for you, but you cannot seem to stop landing yourself into these situations. When you think about it logically, it may make no sense.  

However, if you understand the reenactment of trauma, you will see why this happens.

Differentiation Between Now and Then

Those who suffer from trauma reenactment often cannot differentiate between what is happening now and the past emotional pain that still envelopes them.

This means that past emotional pain keeps accumulating through reenactment, new experiences, new circumstances, which leaves the sufferer unable to tell the difference between what is truly happening now and what is not.

It is important to understand that trauma reenactment is usually unconscious.

Past abuse and traumatic reenactment

childhood trauma

Trauma victims were used to living in chaos and toxicity. They saw the world through a dysfunctional lens, and chaos became their “normal.”

Sometimes these victims may become addicted to the feelings that the trauma ensued. Similarly, some trauma survivors become intensely attached to those who resemble former abusers.

Many theories exist on why those with past trauma reenact their trauma. Sigmund Freud, in his essay “Beyond the Pleasure Principle,” 1920) called certain repetitive behaviours in his clients “repetition compulsion,” and that the reason people repeated traumatic events was to attempt mastery and control.

Since Freud, many researchers have observed that trauma reenactment is an underlying theme for a person’s inability to mentally and emotionally escape from the traumatic experience.

 Dr. Sandra Bloom, author of Creating Sanctuary: Toward the Evolution of Sane Societies, states that

“The memories of the traumatic experience are dissociated, nonverbal, and unintegrated. Over and over, people find themselves in situations that recapitulate earlier trauma and lack any awareness of how it happened much less how to prevent it from happening the next time. The lack of awareness is due to the dissociative blockade that places the behaviour out of the context of verbal and conscious control.”

Others suggest that childhood trauma survivors have poor coping strategies and low self-esteem, which makes them easy targets for predators.

We do know that trauma survivors are “burdened by major impairments in self-care, in cognition and memory, in identity, and in the capacity to form stable relationships,” according to Judith Herman’s book, Trauma and Recovery.

When trauma survivors reenact their past trauma, they may take on the role of either the victim or perpetrator. Dr. Dorothy Lewis’s research has focused on some of the world’s most violent criminals.

She states that while the most damaged people do not turn into killers, almost every killer is a damaged person, and the pain and damage began in their childhoods.

Trauma survivors may also reenact trauma by causing harm to themselves. Some common examples of self-harm are eating disorders, self-mutilation, avoiding medical care, addiction, putting oneself in danger, and unrealistic, self-attacking beliefs.

There is hope

one to one therapy on the patio at White River Manor

While the trauma reenactment is a serious effect of unresolved trauma, there is hope.

For those wanting to help a trauma victim, it is helpful to know that someone who seems to be repeating destructive patterns may be incapable of reversing this behavior because of the unresolved trauma they have locked in their minds.

They need professional help that allows them to come to grips with the original trauma and process it in a healthy way. In addition, because of the core beliefs they have adopted about themselves, they will need therapy in order to correct these beliefs and thoughts.

If this sounds like you, seek help. Many times, those who suffer from trauma reenactment are too ashamed to seek help.

The professionals at White River understand trauma and will help you uncover your past pain and process it healthily so that you can live a productive, free life.

How Pet Therapy Can Help Addiction Treatment

June 9th, 2020 by

There are so many stresses in life between work, personal relationships and social commitments. Sometimes we forget that contact with another being can seriously affect our stress levels – in a positive way!

Believe it or not, science research has established that daily cuddles with your pet are good for both of you. Just 30 minutes with a puppy positively affects your brain chemistry and changes the bodies stress response. 

Pet cuddles can also play an important role in improving your physical health and helping relieve anxiety and depression. They can help to reduce our blood pressure in stressful situations, lower cholesterol and increase physical activity.

What are the other benefits of spending times with pets or animals? 

When you are battling with substance addiction, the support you receive from your loved ones is vital. Having people around to love and care for us goes a long way to aid our rehabilitation. But what about love and cuddles from a pet? Can that also help?

The answer is yes, pet therapy, or animal-assisted therapy can have far-reaching benefits in addiction therapy and rehabilitation.

What is animal-assisted therapy (AAT)?

Animal-assisted therapy uses animals to support clients with mental health disorders or addiction problems. Research shows that it improves our physical, mental and emotional wellbeing. 

A study carried out in 2015 with 231 people taking part demonstrated that mental health rehabilitation which involved animal-assisted therapy strengthened the therapeutic alliance between patient and therapist.

In fact, animal-assisted intervention is widely recognised as being beneficial to addiction therapy and has been used in hospitals, rehabilitation centres, prisons, and nursing homes.

Undertaken alone, pet therapy isn’t the answer. To be effective, it should be included as a goal assisted intervention, directly linked to the client’s overall treatment plan. 

If you are seeking an addiction rehabilitation program which includes animal-assisted therapy, make sure you choose a centre that has practitioners with experience working with animals in a mental health environment.  

Pet therapy and addiction - dog

In most countries, there are no specific qualifications or occupational standards for practitioners working in the AAT field. The therapy is generally carried out in a controlled environment with a multi-disciplinary team of certified therapists, where some have taken AAT as an extended module to their overall qualification or taken part in a stand-alone certification course for animal professionals. 

What animals can be used?

Dogs (canine-assisted therapy) are the most commonly used animals in pet therapy. But what animal you work with, will depend on your specific needs and the chosen centre. Horses (equine therapy) are also commonly used in the treatment of substance abuse.

A centre that uses animal-assisted therapy will carefully select and train the animals, which are typically mature dogs or horses. When trained and used correctly, they can become your loving and supportive companions during your rehabilitation time. 

Other animals that are used in animal-assisted therapy include:

No research has been done on whether some animals are more successful than others in addiction and mental health disorder treatment. 

How can animal-assisted therapy help in addiction treatment?

eat horse therapy

There are many benefits to using animals as part of a holistic program for addiction treatment. The most important recognised benefit is the strengthened alliance between client and therapist.

Animal-assisted therapy creates a better bond between the two, and when there is a strong relationship, it supports the success of the treatment.  

In turn, this decreases the problem of the client pulling out of rehabilitation treatment before they have recovered, which can often happen. The stronger the bond between client and therapist, the more likely the client is to continue treatment and improve their chances of success.

The other important benefit to animal-assisted intervention during addiction treatment is in improving the client’s range of emotional responses.

Client’s suffering from substance abuse or trauma disorder often experience a reduced range of emotional responses and have difficulty experiencing and processing their emotions. When their treatment incorporates animal-assisted therapy, it can help to regulate their emotional responses to situations.

In these cases, pet therapy acts as a model for mindfulness. Teaching clients how to experience emotions in real-time and how to navigate the world of emotions.

Other ways that AAT can help in addiction treatment

A holistic approach to addiction treatment

Animal-assisted therapy isn’t a stand-alone therapy for substance abuse disorders. The intervention should be used to complement traditional and holistic therapy methods where it can improve the bond between patient and therapist, help to strengthen our emotional processes and motivate patients to stay in treatment.

At White River Manor in South Africa, we take a whole-person approach to addiction therapy, using a range of treatments and activities. Our professional team has decades of experience in addiction treatment. 

Our holistic programs are individually tailored to the client and incorporate the required level of intensive therapy, medical management, psychiatric evaluation, invigorating exercise options, healthy eating, and incredible experiences exploring this beautiful part of the world.

7 Effective Ways to Manage Anxiety and Stress During a Pandemic

June 3rd, 2020 by

Buzzwords such as ‘stay home’ and (even more recently) ‘stay alert’ have sparked off their very own movements in recent months.

This aside, how are people coping psychologically amid the pandemic and crucially, how can they manage their mental health during this unprecedented time?

Origin of Pandemics

The Spanish flu that erupted in 1918 killed 50 million people worldwide with similar parallels to the Coronavirus. At its peak, 1,200 people died each day from the Spanish Flu and populations were also a lot smaller a century ago.

Interestingly, how people ‘coped’ back then is similar to how many of us are coping now. Self-isolation booths in 1918 may not have been as high-tech as they are today, however, quarantine rules were strictly imposed on a global level as was social distancing, rationing and panic buying. 

The difference between history and what’s happening today largely boils down to two things: technology and mental health awareness (and in the case of the Spanish flu lack thereof).


covid 19

If we were to draw any positives from the Coronavirus, it would probably be the advancement of technology and scientific research methods.

Essentially, technology has the power to create awareness and as we’ve been taught many times before: awareness saves lives. Unfortunately, since science and medicine were vastly underdeveloped in the 1918’s, medical professionals simply didn’t have the tools to develop a vaccine to treat the virus. 

Not forgetting the lessons that can be learned from history. And although most of us had never heard of the terms ‘social distancing’ and ‘self -isolation’ pre-Covid19, it doesn’t mean that they didn’t exist. Equally, being privy to past knowledge puts us in a stronger position as we have something to draw on. 

Mental Health

Another important factor when it comes to pandemic survival is the role it plays in mental health. 

Decades ago the stigma attached to mental health was much stronger than it is today. And research into the Spanish Flu pandemic shows just how deprived mental health initiatives were back then. 

Historical demographer, Svenn -Erik Mamelund, PhD, conducted research into asylum hospitalizations in Norway from 1872- 1929. The study found that the number of first-time hospitalized patients experiencing mental disorders attributed to influenza increased by an average yearly factor of 7.2 in the 6 years after the pandemic.

Mamelund reported that Spanish flu survivors experienced sleep disturbance, mental distraction, dizziness and an inability to concentrate at work. Many also reported feelings of depression and anxiety, and in the years between 1918-1920, the US suicide rates were positively and significantly related to the Spanish flu pandemic.

Fortunately, support and awareness surrounding mental health issues have drastically improved with the emergence of rehabilitation treatment centres and movements such as Mind and Alcoholics Anonymous (AA).

If history teaches us anything at all, it is the lessons we can learn from the past, including what to do (and crucially what not to do) amid a global pandemic.

Grief and the role it plays during a pandemic

With the world currently experiencing varying levels of grief, it’s important that mental health professionals continue to spread the message surrounding grief and the many ways it manifests. 

The unfortunate death toll that has emerged because of Covid-19 is devastating and has triggered it’s very own grief pandemic. Grief has always been somewhat of a taboo subject. Although when one experiences the death of a loved one, it is expected for them to go through the grieving process. But what about grief that is spurred on by a pandemic?

There are many levels to grief and how one copes is subjective to the individual. Some might turn to substance addiction as a way of coping, while others perhaps turn to other forms of self- destructive behaviour. Grief recovery experts define grief as being:

‘’The normal and natural emotional reaction to loss or change of any kind.’’

If the above statement has any truth to it, the dramatic changes the pandemic has brought to our lives means that we are all grieving to some degree. Ever since the Coronavirus, rehabilitation centres have reported concerns particularly for patients in recovery from addiction.  

Recovery from addiction largely involves a connection with others and sharing challenges with people who understand. Experts have become increasingly concerned about the impact that isolation will have on patients and their recovery.

The World Health Organisation (WHO) recently reported an increase in alcohol use as a coping mechanism during the Coronavirus lockdown, and have labelled it an ‘unhelpful coping strategy’. Relying on alcohol to curb anxiety and cabin fever ‘’can only make things worse’’.

There are several ways in which people can effectively manage stress and anxiety during lockdown which include:

Sticking to a routine

handwashing during a pandemic

Routine is essential to our daily lives. It provides us with structure and purpose and helps us to keep things in order.

For those working from home, it can be tempting to opt for a more relaxed routine, such as getting up late or lounging around in your pyjamas for half the day, but this can quickly turn into a vicious cycle.

The best advice is to follow a similar routine from the pre-quarantine days: get up early, shower, eat breakfast and do some exercise (if possible).

Since Covid-19, peoples’ lives have been thrown into disarray and sticking to a routine provides a bit of structure, it also helps to minimise a ‘fear of the unknown’. The more predictable your daily schedule is, the less likely you are to feel anxious.

This is especially true for those in addiction recovery too, as they can continue (as much as possible) to practise the principles learned from the 12 – step recovery program.

Using positive affirmations

The language people use and their inner dialogue is an important aspect of mental health. 

When it comes to lockdown if we consciously affirm: ‘’I’m enjoying being at home and doing all the things I couldn’t do before’’ instead of ‘’I am isolated indoors’’ it’s likely that over time, your brain will start to respond to the positive narrative it’s being fed.

Almost like ‘rewiring’ the brain, the use of positive language is a very powerful tool in the management of anxiety and stress. 

Those that suffer from anxiety attacks are often advised to use positive affirmations in order to control their breathing during an attack and this approach usually works on both a physiological and emotional level.

Minimising chaos

breathe coping with anxiety

Lately, the outside world has served us with enough chaos to last a lifetime, it’s important then, that we keep our home environment as chaos-free as possible.

This might prove more challenging to those who have children, but maintaining a calm environment when everything else seems out of control, allows us to put specific techniques into practice such as taking up home yoga or meditation.

Essentially, being able to shut the front door and step into a calm, tranquil environment will work wonders in the minimisation of stress – meaning that people are less likely to turn to unhealthy coping mechanisms such as alcohol and other substances.

Limiting news exposure 

While it’s important to know what is going on in the world, excessive news coverage, especially at the current time, will only add to peoples’ stress and anxiety levels. 

The advice would be to stay informed about any changes in rules and the pandemic in general, but not to the point where you are excessively news watching or reading about the pandemic on social media.

Too much negative exposure can create nervous tension within the body and what happens when people become overly nervous? They turn to ‘something’ like alcohol to get rid of the anxiety. A good rule of thumb would be for people to minimise any news exposure to once a day.

Staying Connected

Those who happen to be isolating alone are more at risk of anxiety and feelings of loneliness mental health experts advise.

Long-term disconnectedness from others can often lead to self-destructive behaviour such as excessive drinking, smoking and other forms of addiction. That’s why staying connected to family and friends is important during this time. 

Fortunately, with social platforms like Zoom, Webex and other messaging apps it’s a whole lot easier for people to stay connected compared to a century ago. 

Interestingly, recent research has shown that those who are isolated with family members and partners are also at risk of loneliness regardless of sharing a household with others. For those people, checking in with themselves regularly and staying connected to people outside the house-hold can be extremely cathartic, especially when cabin fever starts to kick in.

Being Active

replacing sport for bad habits

The benefits of physical exercise are endless. Mainly because exercise helps to:

Regular exercise can have a positive profound effect on anxiety, depression and other mental health disorders such as ADHD and the reasons for this are limitless:

Seeking help

Feeling overwhelmed at times is part and parcel of being human. But when things seem unmanageable or you feel as though you can no longer cope, then it might be time to seek help from a professional.

There are plenty of mental health organisations out there and whichever one you decide on, will depend largely on where you live and your symptoms. An individual might be offered tailored therapy or something more intense.

If someone is living with high-functioning anxiety, for example, they might demonstrate a range of symptoms such as: controlling or strict behaviour, perfectionism and the need to over-achieve all of which mask underlying anxiety.

Often people tend to ‘accept’ anxiety as a way of life, but fortunately, it doesn’t have to be this way. 

Rehabilitation centres offer a variety of treatments designed to help people manage stress and anxiety through specific therapy packages and wellness programs.

At White River Manor we believe that anxiety doesn’t have to be a way of life and there is help and support available. Want to find out how we can help? Then contact our team of experts today.

The importance of good nutrition for mental wellbeing

May 21st, 2020 by

You may have noticed that what you eat and drink can lift or lower your spirits. It affects how we feel, think and even how we behave.

Some foods are known to lift your mood, concentration and energy levels, while others can have the opposite effect.

For example, eating a diet rich in fresh fruits, vegetables, nuts, and whole grains can help reduce your risk of some mental health conditions.

Whereas a diet high in sugars and saturated fats are considered detrimental to cognitive function.

Can our diet influence mental health?

Nutrition is one of the most obvious yet under-recognised factors in the development of mental health.

To stay healthy, the brain requires varying quantities of complex carbohydrates, essential fatty acids, amino acids, and even water. 

Our brain is made up of mostly water (about 75%) and so drinking the recommended daily consumption helps with brain function and connectivity in a number of ways.

Water helps balance your mood and emotion, improves cognition and concentration, increases blood flow and oxygen to the brain and also helps reduce stress.

A fully hydrated brain will help the exchange of nutrients and toxins to become more efficient, thus ensuring better concentration and mental performance.

Our brain works hard around the clock, even when we are asleep, and requires a constant supply of fuel – primarily obtained from a balanced diet rich in nutrients.

Those of us who chronically under-eat or regularly skip meals can experience blood sugar decreases, causing our brain to become sluggish and foggy.

In the rush and pressure of modern life, busy schedules mean stressful times and often leave us eating in a frazzled state with little to no time to sit down to a healthy meal – or drink the recommended intake of water for a hydrated body and mind.  

Lack of time has a direct impact on our food choices and we are often found compromising a well-intended diet for quick-fix snacks and stimulants – leaving you zapped of energy both physically and mentally.

Anxiety and Depression in leadership is not uncommon

Corporate leaders and high flying executives working long hours in a competitive environment accept stress as a normal part of life.

For some, it’s not uncommon to self-medicate in order to cope with the stress brought on by running a fast-paced company and the pressures of leading at the top.

But behind closed doors, challenges and vulnerabilities are faced and often they believe the actions they are participating in are helping, not harming them.

There’s a high expectation to perform at peak levels and much rides on their success and behaviour. But how aware are high-powered individuals of their mental health?

Lifestyle factors such as demanding work roles, unhealthy diet, drugs and alcohol, and lack of sleep can all affect your mental health.

Ongoing stress can start to affect our mental health and turn into more serious problems – such as anxiety and Depression.

We have all almost certainly experienced anxiety at some point; it is perfectly normal. The right amount of anxiety can help us do our best in situations that involve performance.

However, the ugly side of anxiety can cause emotional distress and at worse develop anxiety disorders and depression – impacting on our lives as well as our physical and mental health.

Healthy Diet, Healthy Mind

Eating is one of life’s pleasures. So why are so many of us rushing through it?

Our diet and the foods we eat can make a difference when it comes to brain health and function.

Many of us rush through meals or even skip them. You may think it’s not a problem to skip a critical meal, eating fewer calories -what’s the harm-right?

Missing a meal, particularly breakfast, or not eating for long spells can lead to blood sugar decreases, which cause interruption in your ability to think straight – this leaves you feeling irritable, confused and fatigued. In turn, your body starts to increase the production of Cortisol, leaving you even more stressed.

The same can be said about skimping on carbohydrate foods. The term “carbs” may have become a taboo word, and its reputation put into question, but our bodies need carbs to produce serotonin, a feel-good brain chemical that lifts your moods and has a calming effect.

Your brain needs glucose for energy, and this is obtained from carbs when broken down.

Avoiding carbohydrates can actually have negative effects on your brain, and a diet low in carbs can be detrimental to your memory and your ability to learn and think.

Think ‘good’ complex carbs and not ‘bad’ simple carbs.  

The good: vegetables, fruits, beans, whole grains

The bad: cookies, cakes, candy bars and all high sugar options are very easy to breakdown but cause a spike in blood sugar resulting in a crash and low mood.

In order to remain healthy, the brain needs other nutrients such as omega-3s, antioxidants, vitamins and minerals.

Specific fats are a key component in the structure of cell membranes and play an important role in neuron development and function.

For example, omega-3 fatty acids help build and regenerate brain cells, and antioxidants minimise cellular stress and inflammation, which are associated with brain ageing and neurodegenerative disorders.  

Omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA are vital for normal brain function and development throughout all stages of life. Found in fatty fish (salmon, tuna, sardines, mackerel) they improve memory and mood. They can also be found in soybeans, flaxseed, nuts and other seeds. Low levels of omega-3s may accelerate brain ageing and brain function deficits.

For those who fall short of their recommended fish intake, fish oil supplements may be a convenient alternative.

Antioxidants are particularly important for brain health since the brain is highly susceptible to oxidative stress, a condition of imbalance between the production of free radicals and antioxidants, that is thought to contribute to age-related illnesses such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s.

Antioxidants are found in most fruit and vegetables but in general, the brighter the colour, the higher level of antioxidants. Berries – whether strawberries blackberries, blueberries are the ideal antioxidant fix and can help improve concentration and memory.

In particular, blueberries are considered to contain the highest antioxidant levels of all common fruits and vegetables. Make sure to have a place on your plate for brightly coloured fruits and vegetables with every meal.

Be mindful

Catch up on those zzz’s. Sleep and health are strongly related; getting a good night’s sleep helps to repair and restore body and mind whereas poor sleep can have a negative effect on our health.

Sleep is vital for maintaining good physical and mental health. Simple lifestyle adjustments can benefit the quality of our sleep. A lack of sleep or poor quality of sleep can affect our energy, mood and concentration levels.

Taking time out to relax and let go of any worries or concerns is vital for mental wellbeing.

Relaxing gives your body and mind the time to recover from everyday stresses. Stop, breath and take time out for yourself to de-stress and rejuvenate, book yourself that well-deserved getaway without hesitation, take up a yoga class and learn to breathe again.

Breathing exercises can genuinely help, its one of the best ways to reduce tension and lower stress. A perfect tranquil environment will benefit your mind, body and soul.

Sleep well, eat well, exercise and make time for you – Healthy life, Healthy mind!

How to Cope with Chronic Stress and Anxiety

May 12th, 2020 by

You’ve missed the train and will be late for an important meeting. Your deadlines are getting tighter, your hours longer, and you’re always under pressure to perform at peak level.

All of these scenarios can cause us to feel stressed out. Most of the time, that’s okay, as stress is a natural reaction to events that happen during the course of our lives. 

It can even be beneficial to health, helping us to cope with difficult or dangerous situations. This is called the ‘fight or flight response’ or the acute stress response. In a stressful situation, our bodies react by activating our sympathetic nervous system, which releases hormones which prepare the body to deal with the threat or run for the hills! 

When we are in fight or flight mode, our bodies emit signals, such as a rapid heart rate and breathing, dilated pupils, trembling and we either go pale or get flushed.

These signals are a response to help protect our bodies in an emergency. When the emergency passes, we revert back to normal levels within 15-20 minutes. 

There are many situations that can cause high levels of stress, such as high-pressure executive careers, financial problems or difficult relationships. Often one may lead to another leading to a cumulative effect, with each stressor building on top of the other.

Chronic Stress

overwork and burnout

When we feel constantly stressed, our bodies remain in a hyper state of tension. This prolonged period of stress is known as Chronic Stress and can lead to serious psychological problems.

In turn, we may find ourselves in a state of progressive depression, coping with substance abuse or having suicidal thoughts.  

Psychological and emotional signs that you’re stressed out:

Whilst some people only experience psychological effects, many of us also feel the physical toll of stress on the body. 

Mild symptoms such as headache, muscle tension and heartburn, are common, but prolonged bouts of stress can put a lot of pressure on the major systems in our body and cause damage to organs and tissues, leading to serious health problems. 

Physical signs that you’re stressed out:

Finding the root of the problem

When you feel completely overwhelmed with stress and anxiety for a prolonged period, it becomes difficult to cope with even the smallest daily tasks, let alone try to address the underlying feelings of stress and helplessness. However, it’s important to put some discipline into place and to make positive changes before things spiral out of control.  

The first thing to do is to identify the root of the problem, which is causing you to feel stressed. Finding the connection between feeling stressed and the pressures you are facing will help you move towards a less stressful life.

Think about the triggers

What are you doing when symptoms of stress are triggered? Are you at work, home, or calculating your financial situation? 

Start to recognise the symptoms and note down where you are and what you’re doing when they come on. 

When you have an idea of what’s causing the problem, you need to decide whether the factors are self-manageable. 

If there are practical solutions to your problems, it’s time to implement them.

Here are some examples: 

Delegation: If you are taking on too much at work, speak to your team about delegating some of your tasks. 

Prioritisation: Do you need to prioritise a relationship over your work or work over a relationship to get the situation under control? Decide on your priorities and put lesser tasks or issues aside for now.

A great example of this can be found in the Coronavirus lockdown situation:

We are working from home and homeschooling our children. Attempting to keep both ourselves and our families focused. But to maintain order in a chaotic world can be highly stressful.

This is a key time for prioritisation and perhaps putting aside the rules that we might have insisted upon at home during normal times. 

Organisation: How can you re-organise areas of your life so that they are handled in a more relaxed fashion?

Scheduling time between tasks and free time, time off from emails and social media, and not allowing colleagues to jump into your space for improvised meetings will help you to become more organised and focused. 

When bad habits take over

Often when we find ourselves in stressful times, we turn to unhealthy habits. Using short-term fixes to feel better is a typical way of dealing with stress. You’re not alone.

Some of these habits might be harmless in the short-term, such as drinking too much caffeine or switching to watching endless YouTube videos instead of focusing on work.

However, if our stress is prolonged, these quick-fixes turn into seriously bad habits. 

How do we go about reducing the bad habits and introducing healthy ones?

replacing sport for bad habits

It’s essential to be more aware of those moments when you reach for an unhealthy fix to your problem. When you feel like having one drink too many or starting an argument with your partner, why not try to connect with someone you can talk to instead.

It might not be easy at first, but as they say: a problem shared is a problem halved. 

What steps can we take to protect our health from stress?

Aside from getting bad habits under control, there are lots of things we can do to move towards a healthier and more stress-free life. 


Daily physical exercise, even if it’s only 20 minutes a day, is a positive habit to introduce and is scientifically proven to decrease tension and elevate our mood. Even light exercise and fresh air, such as a daily walk around the neighbourhood will do you the world of good. 

Eat for health:

When we reach for sugary snacks or junk food, we are feeding our stress. Recent research suggests that certain foods affect our state of mind. 

When we eat healthy foods, we get adequate amounts of nutrients, vitamins and minerals and have positive feels of wellbeing. When we eat unhealthy food, we feel negative about ourselves almost immediately after doing so, and we are increasing the risk of contracting a diet-related disease.

Mindfulness & Meditation:

You’ve probably heard something about mindfulness, but in your stressed state, you’ve dismissed it in favour of another glass of wine or a line of coke. However, mindfulness is an excellent method to help build inner strength and better manage stressful situations. 

Both mindfulness and meditation teach us to become more aware of our thoughts and how to step back from them, so we don’t immediately react to certain situations. You also become more sensitive to the needs of your body, which helps reduce bad habits. 

At White River Manor, we incorporate mindfulness therapy into our executive burnout and addiction programs.

Don’t beat yourself up

The most stressful thing about being stressed is blaming yourself when things don’t go according to plan.

In times of stress and worry, it’s important to keep perspective and remember that you’re not the only person to have a bad day. 

Instead of beating yourself up, be kind and supportive instead. Take some time each day to appreciate yourself and if you are going to critic yourself, don’t always look for your faults, instead look at the bigger picture.

You’ll be amazed out how much is actually out of your control in these situations – especially with work-related stress.

Time out

south Africa - White River Manor

When stress is prolonged, and your symptoms list grows longer, it’s time to take a step away and focus on self-care. Taking time off from work and yourself out of the routine is the best way to put things into perspective and make positive decisions about your future.

“I don’t have time for a holiday” is so often the excuse we use for avoiding ‘me’ time, in which we should be making healthy decisions about our future.

However, regular breaks are essential if we want to strike a healthy work-life balance. And they will do the world of good for our mental health. 

Whether you stay at home and practice self-care, take a well-earned holiday, or book yourself into a recovery centre like White River Manor, the sooner you take action the quicker you’ll be back to your optimum self.

We can’t avoid it altogether, but it’s important to accept that holding onto stress is a detriment to our health.

Avoiding bad habits and keeping a healthy balance between work and play, helps us to live longer and stronger, be more successful at work and enjoy more fulfilling relationships. 

The 12 Step Program: How does it work and is it still relevant?

April 20th, 2020 by

Recovery is a long journey of self-discovery and you walk it by taking one step at a time. One approach is to follow the 12-step programme that has strong spiritual roots and offers guiding principles to uncover deep-seated behavioural issues that drive addiction.

There is much debate whether the world-acclaimed 12-steps programme is still relevant considering how neuroscience and addiction therapy have evolved in the 80 years since the programme was first introduced. It’s relevancy is constantly questioned, but at the end of the day if the programme resonates with you and you’ll benefit from it; then there’s no harm in including it in a holistic therapy plan.

Although the 12-step programme is not central to White River Manor’s therapy philosophy, it can always be incorporated into your individual therapy plan.

What is the 12 step recovery program?

Since it was introduced in 1935, the renowned 12-step programme has dominated the primary approach to treating addiction. In fact, more than two-thirds of addiction treatment centres solely focus on the 12-step programme and they advocate recovering addicts attend AA-type meetings after they complete a stay at a rehabilitation centre.

The purpose of the 12-step model is to aid recovery from compulsive, out-of-control behaviours that are ultimately linked to substance abuse. It’s one of the tools often used to understand what the root cause is of a person’s addiction; where participants attend self-help group meetings which serve as a safe place to admit past mistakes, surrender to a higher power and learn to stay sober.

These AA-type meetings are readily available, easily accessible and most often free to join. Men and women from all walks of life attend who share experiences and gain strength and hope from one another.

Who started the 12 step program?

Alcohol Anonymous pioneered the 12-step programme which was established in the 1930s by Bill Wilson and Dr Robert Holbrook Smith, known to AA members as “Bill W” and “Dr Bob”. Together, they wrote about the positive effects people with alcoholism experienced when they shared their stories with one another and wrote down their own ideas for tackling addiction (to alcohol initially) in what came to be known as the Big Book.

Wilson and Smith’s guide to shared recovery was deeply rooted in the Christian faith and still is today, although non-religious people tend to swop a higher “God” with a higher “spiritual being”.

In addition to the Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) franchise, many other similar programmes sprung up as an offshoot of the original 12-step programme. This included Narcotics Anonymous (NA), Heroin Anonymous (HA) and Gamblers Anonymous (GA).

For a long time, the 12-step programme dominated the world’s approach to treating substance abuse. However, over time, other therapy programmes have replaced the tradition 12-step programme and it’s no longer the preferred method for recovery.

This is largely because many people struggle with the strong religious element of the programme, where the basic premise is healing cannot come about unless you surrender to a higher power. This doesn’t sit comfortably in a multi-denominational and multi-cultural world, particularly as the 12-step programme has a strong Christian foundation.

How does the 12 step program work?

The 12-step programme offers a set of guiding principles to help you on your journey to sobriety. More importantly, it provides continuity in the form of self-help group meetings once a person has left an addiction treatment centre and returned to daily life.

The programme gives recovering addicts a simple process they can follow which allows them to understand and manage their addiction, find a supportive and non-judgemental group outside of the rehab centre and mend broken relationships and/or end destructive relationships with enablers.

The focus of the 12-step programme is to enable cognitive restricting around substance abuse and similar behaviour. This entails understanding the root cause on the addiction and changing behavioural patterns.

How do 12 step meetings work?

The 12-step meeting is well-known. We’ve seen it in movies and television series where a group gathers and someone stands up and says, “Hello, I’m Mary and I am an alcoholic.”

One member of the group leads the meeting; it opens with a prayer or meditation and people introduce themselves and at the same time, acknowledge their substance abuse.

The rest of the meeting is spent either listening to an outside speaker or going over addiction literature, working through the 12 guiding principles and speaking out about experiences and challenges. You can choose to share or keep quiet and listen. It’s entirely up to you.

The meeting ends off in prayer or another meditation.

What are the 12 steps of the 12 step program?

The 12-step approach to recovery from addiction follows a set of guidelines that act as steps in your journey of recovery. The idea is to visit these steps as often and whenever necessary.

The 12-steps in the 12-step program are:

1st principle: Surrender

We admitted we were powerless over our addiction – that our lives had become unmanageable.

2nd principle: Hope

Came to believe that a Power greater than ourselves could restore us to sanity.

3rd principle: Commitment

Made a decision to turn our will and our lives over to the care of God as we understood Him.

4th principle: Honesty

Made a searching and fearless moral inventory of ourselves.

5th principle: Truth

Admitted to God, to ourselves and to another human being the exact nature of our wrongs.

6th principle: Willingness

Were entirely ready to have God remove all these defects of character.

7th principle: Humility

Humbly asked Him to remove our shortcomings.

8th principle: Reflection

Made a list of all persons we had harmed and became willing to make amends to them all.

9th principle: Amendment

Made direct amends to such people wherever possible, except when to do so would injure them or others.

10th principle: Vigilance

Continued to take personal inventory and when we were wrong promptly admitted it.

11th principle: Atonement

Sought through prayer and meditation to improve our conscious contact with God as we understood Him, praying only for knowledge of His will for us and the power to carry that out.

12th principle: Service

Having had a spiritual awakening as the result of these steps, we tried to carry this message to alcoholics (addicts) and to practice these principles in all our affairs.

Does the 12-step recovery program work?

As they say; “it works if it works for you”. Basically, the 12-step programme works if you are motivated to recover and maintain sobriety. It doesn’t work if you don’t buy into it, aren’t committed to getting “clean” or are forced into it by, for example, a court mandate or family intervention.

The 12-step programme is not for everyone and if it’s the only approach offered by a rehabilitation centre, that would be limiting. Included in a holistic approach to addiction treatment, the 12-step programme has real value if it resonates with you.

Non-religious addicts or addicts who practise a different religion are as likely to benefit from the programme; particularly, as part of an after-care programme where the 12-step programme can help to reinforce what they’ve discovered about themselves in rehab. Like them or hate them, AA-type meetings have been around for decades and have been life-saving for countless people.

Is the 12-step program still relevant?

One would think that after so many years, the 12-step programme or modified versions of it would have evolved. It hasn’t; in fact, the 12-steps haven’t been touched since 1939… in other words, since the beginning of World War II.

In that time, 80 years to be exact; there have been incredible advances in the field of neuroscience, genetics and psychotherapy. This has led to the development of highly effective treatment approaches such as Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT), Motivational Interviewing (MI), Mindful Meditation (MM) and Contingency Management.

These therapy approaches have added to the arsenal that therapists have on hand to understand and treat the underlying causes of addiction. Used in isolation, the 12-step programme is limited when you consider how much more can be done to help a person seeking treatment for addiction.

In short, many addiction specialists view the 12-step programme as being antiquated and no longer relevant. And there’s much debate in general over its credibility and just how successful it is. At the end of the day, it comes down to the person in recovery and how committed he or she is to the 12-step programme. If it doesn’t work, that may have more to do with the person than the programme.

Why the 12-step program should not replace modern therapy approaches

The AA-type meetings that form a big part of the 12-step programme are inclusive and provide comfort and support in a non-judgemental environment. However, critics of the spiritual-based model say that confession and prayer are not enough if addiction is to be treated as a medical condition. In many cases, substance abuse is linked to a mental disorder and simply handing something that serious over to a “higher power” can do more harm than good.

When dealing with drug or alcohol addiction, we’ve come to understand how complex the condition can be. Any recovering addict knows that the recovery process is like peeling an onion layer by layer. Just when you think you’ve uncovered a deep emotional issue, something deeper surfaces; and the next layer begins to peel off and so the process continues.

The modern approach to treating addiction involves a multi-disciplinary specialist team that designs a treatment plan for you that meets your individual needs, and always with your buy in. This may include the 12-step programme if the guiding principles resonate with you. An integrated, holistic approach that considers the whole being – mind, body and soul – is proving to be the most effective approach to treating addiction.


White River Manor has had years of experience in dealing with alcohol and drug addiction and works closely with a dynamic team of specialists, therapists, highly experienced counsellors, medical practitioners, psychologists, and psychiatrists to create a holistic nurturing environment for clients.

If you need expert advice and assistance, then White River Manor is the right place to go to make those changes in your life. You don’t need to struggle on your own.

Addiction & Mental Illness… which one comes first?

April 14th, 2020 by

Dual diagnosis is so common that most alcohol and drug recovery centres expect to find it in a patient. It’s where a patient is diagnosed with a mental illness and a co-occurring addiction. This ranges from alcohol and drug addiction to an addiction to sex, gaming and stealing.

Studies show that at least 50% of people living with a mental illness have a substance abuse problem. Similarly, more than half of the people battling with alcohol and drug addiction have a common mental health disorder.

The fact that there’s a link between addiction and mental illness is fairly obvious. If you’re feeling out of sorts emotionally, you’re likely to reach for alcohol and drugs to cope. Likewise, if you’re regularly abusing alcohol and drugs, you’ll likely develop symptoms of a mental disorder.

In the medical world, it’s called a co-occurring disorder or comorbidity when a person has more than one mental disorder.

Putting out a fire

A simple analogy to help you understand a dual diagnosis is comparing it to the science of fire. It takes more than one element to ignite a fire. Similarly, it takes more than one element to ignite an alcohol and drug addiction.

The fire triangle
For a fire to ignite, it needs fuel, heat and oxygen. They say that when all three elements are present and combine in the right mixture, a fire is actually an event rather than a thing.

You can prevent a fire or put it out by removing ANY ONE of the three elements in the fire triangle. For example, you can remove oxygen by throwing a wet blanket over the fire and remove heat by dousing it with water. And a fire will naturally die out when it runs out of fuel (wood, paper, grass etc.).


If you don’t COMPLETELY remove that element, the fire will reignite. You think you’ve put the fire out but the woodpile is silently smoldering (heat). All it takes is for the wind (oxygen) to pick up and the fire reignites.

The Addiction Triangle
Let’s call a dual diagnosis the Addiction Triangle.

The three sides of your Addiction Triangle are alcohol and drugs, negative thought patterns and a mental disorder.

When all three elements are present and combine in the right mixture, a fire of pain and destruction will ignite. You can remove any one of the three elements to extinguish the fire of destruction but it’s only temporary if you don’t COMPLETELY remove it.

You can stop using alcohol and drugs and you can learn self-help tools to deal with feelings and situations that trigger a relapse. However, if you don’t deal with your mental illness; you’re highly likely to relapse if you turn to alcohol and drugs to cope with anxiety and depression.

This is why an integrated treatment plan is critical for a patient with a dual diagnosis. All three elements of the Addiction Triangle must be treated for successful recovery from alcohol and drugs.

How to treat a dual diagnosis

Substance abuse and a mental health disorder needs to be treated simultaneously. If you’re staying at a recovery treatment centre that doesn’t offer an integrated approach, the chances of you relapsing are high.

Co-occurring mental disorders that go hand-in-hand with addictions include:

The integrated approach usually involves:

Detox is the first stage in the recovery process and the most grueling. The detox process purges your body of harmful chemicals and restores it to a clean slate.

During detox, a patient stops using what they’re addicted to immediately. You experience painful and very uncomfortable withdrawal symptoms which include seizures, hallucinations and cravings.

Withdrawal symptoms such as seizures and a sudden drop in alcohol levels can lead to sudden death. It’s critical that you have proper medical supervision when you detox. This is very important for alcohol and opioid detoxification.

Your medical team will keep you safe and comfortable using the right medication and therapy to see you through the detox process.

Behaviour therapy (cognitive behavioral therapy and psychotherapy)
Behaviour therapy helps people uncover and address the negative thoughts, false beliefs and insecurities that lead to substance abuse. In the process, patients are provided with self-help tools to deal with situations that trigger cravings and self-destructive behaviour.

When an addict understands why they feel or act in a certain way and understand how these feelings or situations trigger substance abuse, they’re more likely to succeed in their recovery.

Depending on the diagnosis, this could include:

Common mental health disorders linked to addiction

A person living with a mental illness is more likely to abuse alcohol and drugs mainly because they mask symptoms such as of depression, anxiety, self-loathing and low self-esteem. Using alcohol and drugs over a period of time will make a mental illness worse and the medical treatment less effective.

A bigger problem is alcohol and drug abuse can trigger a mental illness. If you have a predisposition to a psychotic illness such as bipolar disorder or schizophrenia; alcohol and drugs may trigger your first episode which then becomes a lifelong illness.

The common mental health disorders linked to alcohol and drug addiction include:

Alcohol and drugs are a form of self-medication for people living with depression but it usually makes the problem worse. Feelings of self-loathing after alcohol and drug binges can drive a person deeper and deeper into depression.

People who suffer from generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) may use alcohol and drugs to cope with their anxiety. They’re more likely to abuse benzodiazepines which are prescribed for anxiety and highly addictive.

OCD (Obsessive Compulsive Disorder)
People living with OCD often suffer from high levels of anxiety and low self-esteem which leads to depression. They may use alcohol and drugs to cope with their feelings that arise from irrational obsessions and compulsions.

ADHD (Attention-deficit Hyperactive Disorder)
People, in particular school-going children, are prescribed a stimulant to treat their ADHD which can be habit-forming. When coupled with anxiety and low self-esteem, it can lead to destructive behaviour patterns and substance abuse.

Eating disorders
People struggling with anorexia or bulimia often use drugs to suppress their appetite. Cocaine is a common drug used by models forced to keep their weight down to the bare minimum as it takes your appetite away completely.

PTSD (Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder)
The brain of a person struggling with PTSD produces less endorphins which often leads to depression. Someone who’s experienced a traumatic or violent event and has not dealt with it in therapy may turn to alcohol and drugs to cope with their anxiety and stress.

Bipolar disorder
Alcohol and drugs provide temporary relief from the emotional, manic rollercoaster that people with bipolar travel in life. The statistics are that about half of people with bipolar disorder struggle with addiction.

BPD (Borderline Personality Disorder)
Research shows there’s a strong link between BPD and addiction. A person living with BPD is more likely to use alcohol and drugs to cope with their symptoms.

Schizophrenia is characterised by bouts of severe hallucinations and delusional thinking. A person with schizophrenia may use alcohol and drugs to cope with their symptoms and this can make things much worse.

Dual diagnosis warning signs

The most difficult thing about a dual diagnosis is separating the addiction from the disorder. This is because many of the symptoms overlap. It all depends on the type of substance abused and the severity of the mental health disorder.

Overlapping symptoms include:

Quick facts about dual diagnosis

Dual diagnosis is used to describe a person living with an addiction and a mental health disorder. More than half of people with a chronic mental illness will also have a substance use or abuse disorder.

Comorbidity is used when a person has two or more mental health disorders. They may occur at the same time or one comes after the other.

If an addiction and mental illness co-occurs in a patient, they need an integrated dual disorder treatment programme delivered by a multidisciplinary team.

The more severe the mental illness, the more likely the person will be to use and abuse alcohol and drugs. People living with a mental illness commonly use alcohol, marijuana and/or cocaine to cope with their symptoms.

Males aged 18 to 44 years old living with a mental illness are at greatest risk of developing an alcohol or drug addiction.

Teenagers and young adults with serious behavioural problems are 7 times more likely to eventually use and abuse substances.

Are you concerned

Dual diagnosis should ideally be made by a multi-disciplinary team at an alcohol and drug recovery centre and needs to be treated using an integrated dual disorder treatment programme.

White River Manor works closely with professionals with years of experience in dual diagnosis. Our multidisciplinary team includes a psychiatrists, cognitive behaviour specialist, counsellors, nursing sisters and a nutritionist. The aim is to ensure you or your loved one receive a tailor-made recovery programme that’s holistic and comprehensive.


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